Thesis and Arguments

            This research paper analyzes the strategies that the trans-national terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda use to oppose the American decadence and imperialism as the leading edge of their broad claim of producing an Islamic revolution that will transform the Middle East and later the entire world. The paper identifies the Foreign Terrorist Organizations as those that are designated by the US secretary of State in accordance with the 219th section of the Immigration and Nationality Act as it was amended. These groups play a critical role in fighting against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing the support for terror groups and pressuring the groups to cease the terrorist activities. On their part, the transnational terror groups fight against the enemies of the Islamist Revolution.

 The paper also talks about the CIRA and ETA groups who are on the other hand, discussed as the national movement groups. The paper gives the differences and similarities between the nationalists and the non-nationalists groups by identifying their goals, locations and the terror activities that they have been recently involved in. The paper proves that the primary motivations of ISIS and Al-Qaeda terror groups include driving away the US military from the Middle East and to attack the Islamist groups that are allied to the US as well as carrying out an armed struggle against all the enemies of the Islamic Revolution.  The paper also shows that the national movement groups like the ETA and CIRA focus on conducting the terror attacks in their own countries rather than the international attacks conducted by the trans-national groups.

Argument

This paper argues that the nationalist terrorists and the trans-national terrorists have various similarities and differences in their attack strategies. It shows that all the four groups are similar in a manner that they were all formed to cause violent and terror to accomplish revolutionary change. The paper also argues that the trans-national and national groups have their own tactics and principles that guide them while carrying out the terror activities.  This paper proves that the main difference between the transnational and national terror groups is that, the national groups like ETA and CIRA are only threat to their own countries while the transnational groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS cause terror attacks globally.

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        The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a jihadist group of the most concern after the terror group Al-Qaeda. It was formed by a former ally of Osama bin Laden and Abu Mosab Al-Zarqawi. The goals of the group are similar to that of Al-Qaeda because the two groups were initially associated. Although the groups were formally allied, ISIS is not an outgrowth of Al-Qaeda but a radical group that claims to fight for Islam religion as they believe they are fighting the holy war (Khan & Estrada, 2016).

Both Al-Qaeda and ISIS are mainly located in the Middle East, but they are transnational terrorist groups. Two other groups often identified as major terrorist agencies, CIRA and ETA, are found in Europe. Both also are more centered on secular nationalist conflict rather than religious conflict. Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is a paramilitary group that claims to be an armed force of the Irish Republic. The group aims at uniting Ireland. The group broke from the former temporary IRA group but remained dormant until the temporary IRA ceasefire of 1994. It is an illegal group in the Republic of Ireland, and it has been deemed as a terrorist group in the UK. On the other hand, ETA which stands for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna is an armed leftist militant group based in northern Spain. Since its formation, it has evolved to become a paramilitary group involved in violent activities such as bombing, kidnapping, and assassinations in the southern Basque country. Josu Urrutikoetxea David Pla founded the group with the aim of fighting for Basque nationalism. In this paper, the concentration will be focused on identifying the tactics used by terror groups, their similarities, and differences. An in-depth exploration of secondary sources will be valuable for this research paper. 

Background

The tactics of the groups

       ISIS and Al-Qaeda

              A notable and distinctive feature of the tactics employed by ISIS is terrorizing opposition and its local population by the use of mass executions, symbolic crucifixions, and beheadings. With all the brutal operations conducted by the group, ISIS remains organized to establish a state that can cover a wide range of geographical area. It uses terrorism as part of the revolutionary war to build the dynamics that will help it win territory on the ground. ISIS has positioned their point of departure in Syria and Iraq from where they intend to be empowered to proceed to further conquest. (Cronin, 2015).

              Until this last year, ISIS has been able to conquer substantial urban areas gaining significant oil revenues and financial resources and possesses still a scale of a workforce that helps in its progress. According to statistics, the number of fighters in ISIS ranges from 7,000 to 12,000, and the group keeps recruiting more soldiers on a daily basis. In 2017 and 2018 they have been on the defensive, and their resources and territorial gains have been considerably constricted. They remain undefeated, however. Their seasoned and well-armed workforce poses the unprecedented threat to their enemies, including America.

              ISIS. ISIS group had the objectives of offering direct military operations towards well-defined and realistic goals. The strategy of the group is to target civilians and other international groups to conduct attacks on the regions. ISIS is using social media as a military strategy for them to send the terrifying videos and at the same time to send messages that attract international attention. Their primary enemies are other Muslims, those Sunni and Alawites in opposition, but Shia everywhere not only in power in Iraq or Iran (Farwell, 2014; Gesink, 2014).

               There is a substantial difference strategically between the goals and proclaimed enemies of ISIS and Al-Qaeda. The latter is more focused on the “distant” enemies outside of the Muslim world, like America, which they see as supporting the decadent Muslim regimes of the Middle

East. The emphasis is on all-Muslim revolution, and therefore less on fighting Shia and Muslims “near” at hand. ISIS is more focused on “near” enemies, especially Shia; its message is to establish a universal Caliphate based on their version of extreme Islamic Sunni fundamentalism (Sidahmed, 2018).

               Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda‘s strategy is to use opposition to the U.S. (American decadence and imperialism) as the leading edge of its broad claim to produce an Islamic revolution which will transform first the Middle East and later the world. One of the primary goals of Al-Qaeda was to drive out the Americas military from Saudi Arabia through violence and threats. When bin Laden and Zarqawi started leading Al-Qaeda, the new ideology of jihadism made the group begin carrying out the armed struggle against all the enemies of Islam and with this momentum, they planned to terrorize the U.S. and claim to defend the rights of Muslims. The U.S. was targeted most notably and successfully with the 9/11 attacks (2001). They hoped to gain prominence and drain the U.S. financially while terrorizing its population and by example the Europeans and what Al-Qaeda regarded as their “puppet” Muslim regimes in the Middle East. Al-Qaeda wanted to liberate Muslim lands, drive Western culture from their area and to establish the sharia on both Muslims and the non-Muslims in those lands (Sidahmed, 2018).

The CIRA and ETA

               CIRA. The CIRA group is still guided by the principle of the original Irish Republic Army that was to force the British out of Ireland. Terrorist tactics and prolonged civil war had induced the U.K. by the early 1920s to grant independence to the majority of Irish with the establishment of the Eire, the state of Ireland which was mainly Catholic. Six counties of the north dominated by Scots-Irish and Protestants remained a part of the U.K. as Northern Ireland. After the prolonged tension between Northern Ireland and Eire, and within Northern Ireland, terrorism erupted in the 1960s called “The Troubles,” and gave birth to radical and terrorist groups like the CIRA. Recently peace negotiations have ended the worst of the terrorism, but tensions still exist. The causes have remained national, economic and religious differences.

               ETA. The ETA is also a predominantly nationalist group. It is driven less by religious than linguistic and cultural differences which define the Basque, a pre-Indo- European people based in the mountains between present-day Spain and France. The group arose in the democratic era after the fall of the dictator Franco, and its chief opponent has been the democratic government of Spain. The Basque territories in France have experienced some terrorism, but the French have more successfully suppressed ETA and the Basque regions there are smaller than the areas claimed in Spain. The fall of the Franco regime led Spain to democracy but also to a more liberal power-sharing with regions within Spain. ETA arose as a radical group which prohibited power-sharing but independent national power for the Basque (an interesting parallel is emerging today with Catalonia centered in Barcelona – but terrorism has yet to arise there). The group is characterized by a constant struggle with the government of Spanish as their primary enemy. The ETA group is guided by the principle “Fight for Survival” that they believe is their way of fighting for their lives (Barros et al., 2006). The ideology of ETA focuses on excluding those who don’t believe in Basque culture and nationalism. Its primary target group is those who do not believe in the full autonomy of Basque Region. The long-term principle of the group has been to seek complete independence of the Basque homeland in Spain, but they have not been successful.

Recent works of the groups

Discussion

              ISIS is a strong terrorist militant association that controls several areas around the globe. However, it was founded in the Middle East particularly in Syria where it carried its operations and resulted in the establishment what they called a Caliphate. The founders aimed to carry out terrorist activities against the governments and individuals who are against Islam and those Islamists who are reluctant in observing their religion. On the other hand, Al-Qaeda is a radical militant Islamist international organization that was founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988. His agenda was to fight the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Al-Qaeda’s military base was in Iraq where it was founded to fight the western countries from invading. However, decentralization has taken place, and the terror group is dispersed with representation by radical individuals and groups. ISIS has been declared Caliphate with territorial and political authority over portions of Iraq and Syria and claims the loyalty of all Muslims, Al-Qaeda has been careful not to make claims to political authority over specific territories. For instance, Bin Ladin declared authority to act on behalf of Muslims, but not rule over them. Al-Qaeda has never been tied to a specific territory or attempted to build a state, whereas Al-Bakar and ISIS have done so, starting with large areas of Iraq and Syria.

ETA and CIRA

               ETA has murdered hundreds of people since starting its struggle for Basque independence in 1968 (Sullivan, 2015). The latest attacks were in 2010 and 2011. In 2010, attacks included the; a small bomb going off in front of an employment institute office in Vitoria in February, an officer of the French Police being killed in a fierce shootout with ETA members in Paris in March. Further, two small explosive devices exploding in the home of a judge and a security guard in San Sebastián in May (Canel, 2012). August of the same year violence spread along the Basque Country after a series of coordinated Kale Borroka attacks. Buildings and vehicles were burnt, and two policemen were injured. On 9th April 2011, a police officer was shot by members of the proscribed ETA. They refused to stop at a police checkpoint in Valliere town. Two members of ETA were arrested the following day in a gun battle though no one was hurt.

               The CIRA on the hand has been involved in several incidents of bombing and shooting. The primary targets being the British military, the Northern Ireland police, and Ulster loyalist paramilitaries. A bomb believed to be the work of CIRA was detonated in Dublin in the December of 2005. In February of 2006 CIRA was blamed for planting four bombs in Northern Ireland, including several warnings. The IMC also blamed them for the killings of two former members in Belfast, who had run with weapons to establish a splinter group. On 10th March 2009, the CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a police officer in Northern Ireland. The officer had responded to a stress call in the neighborhood when a CIRA sniper shot and killed him. The officer was called Stephen Carroll. On the Easter of 2016, the Continuity IRA had a march through North Lurgan, County Armagh. The police just monitored the parade from a helicopter and did not offer any resistance to them. Like the ETA, more recently there have been fewer successful acts of terrorism, but they still exist (LaFree et al., 2012).

Al-Qaeda and ISIS

ISIS now has been committing terror activities in Syria due to the civil war that started in 2014. While they held and governed territory, they terrorized those in the administered areas, surrounding states and sustained attacks overseas. Most of their members have remained fervent. As they have lost most of the Caliphate, they changed their tactics and opted to stay at home and attack local targets. Additionally, ISIS members who had come from foreign countries began to return home. The most recent terrorist activity ISIS undertook was the New York attack on November second, 2017. Although the USA was not aware of who committed the terror attacks, the ISIS members through twitter commented that they are the people who committed the terror activities (Cronin, 2015). ISIS members who organized the terrorist attack declared that they would continue terrorizing Americans and ruin their lives. ISIS group continually uses propaganda to spread their terror activities. CNN reported that ISIS was the suspect in the killing of eight people after an ISIS soldier drove a truck onto the New York bike path. The person who committed the crime is believed to be an ISIS soldier who made the car to the protesters in the street killing eight people in a bid to support the terror activities of ISIS.

ISIS has used a strategy of encouraging others to act in its name, for instance in the car and truck killings of civilians in France, Britain, and France in recent years. It focuses its energy and human resources on fighting to defend its territory in the Middle East, but via the internet and social media, it has been able to encourage sympathizers abroad to conduct terror activities. By their very isolated and small-scale nature, these “auxiliary” attacks pose less danger to others but advertise and exaggerate ISIS’ threat.

Besides ISIS, Al-Qaeda group has also committed a lot of terror activities in the recent past. Led by Mokhtar Belmokhtar, Al-Qaida succeeded in holding about eight hundred people hostages in a place called Tigantourine in Algeria. During this time, about 40 hostages from foreign countries were killed alongside 29 Algerian security guards (Dijkstra, 2016). In 2015, the terror group shot many people in Charlie Hebdo Paris whereby twelve and eleven people were killed and wounded respectively. The terror group affiliates in Arabian Peninsula claimed to have caused this shooting. In 2010, Al-Qaeda killed more than one hundred people in Baghdad Iraq, whereby, the Arabian Peninsula based Al-Qaida group claimed responsibility. It was believed that the bombs involved in this incident were constructed by an explosive expert called Ibrahim Hassan Asiri. Finally, the group carried out several suicide bombings in Iraq which led to the death of about 133 people (Byman, 2015).

Unlike ISIS, Al-Qaeda has tended to recruit, train and use its operatives, usually to educate and to plan complex, large-scale operations abroad. And although its effective reach has diminished, it is still operating throughout the world, its primary energies not tied down to Iraq and Syria. Its organization and efforts to project its power are less defined by a central and vertical would-be Caliphate, and then they are cellular, spread-out, and horizontal throughout the Middle East and Africa (e.g., Yemen and Algeria).

Similarities between non-nationalist and nationalist’s movement

 ISIS and al-Qaeda are examples of associations explicitly created to fight the Western powers invaded Iraq and Afghanistan. This indicates that the founders of the groups were anti-nationalist or rather non-nationalist (Khan & Estrada, 2016). The idea of the nation-state founded less on religious than secular ideology seemed to them more evidence of Western imperialism and false ideology of present-day Middle Eastern regimes. They turned to religion, a return to Islamic fundamentalism to be an alternative claim to cultural and political loyalty. Bin Laden acted in the name of radical jihad and ISIS in the name of restoring the universal Islamic Caliphate.

CIRA and ETA are examples of nationalist movements. They were formed to fight the existing states with the intention of wanting to establish a people (the Irish and the Basques, (respectively) as states (nation states). Although nationalist movements recognize the boundaries and want to protect their states, sometimes they can also fight among themselves when conflicts arise. For instance, when the civil war began in Syria, ISIS nationalist movements acted as a non-nationalist movement fighting with the civilians.

All four associations (ISIS, al-Qaeda, CIRA, and ETA) were formed with agendas to accomplish revolutionary change. They were and are prepared to use violence and terror for radical political aims, national or religious.

Differences in the two Groups

              There are several variations between the two groups discussed above. To begin with, CIRA and ETA are in Europe while ISIS and Al-Qaeda in the Middle East. While ISIS and Al-Qaeda are militant groups that conduct terrorist activities in various parts of the world, CIRA and ETA are paramilitary groups that are concentrated in Ireland and Spain respectively (Barros et al., 2006). Unlike ISIS and Al-Qaeda, CIRA and ETA primarily focus conduct violent activities only within the countries which they target and do not have international agendas to attack civilians and others outside the territories they are mainly associated with. Another main difference between the groups is that ISIS and Al-Qaeda, like CIRA and ETA, have been declared internationally as terrorist groups but CIRA and ETA are only considered significant threats in their countries.

              The main aim for the formation of ISIS and Al-Qaeda was to fight the Western countries that had interests in the Middle East particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan (Dijkstra, 2016). So the primary intention of their formation was to unite the Arab nation so that they can fight together with the Western powers. On the other hand, CIRA and ETA were formed in their respective countries to compete with the already existing state and army. The intention was to create their nations and maintain the traditions of their homeland amid transformations and change. Finally, ISIS and Al-Qaeda are still fresh and are not ready to relinquish their terror activities. They continue fighting and avenging the killings of their leaders and founders. On the other hand, CIRA and ETA are very weak today, and many of the members have surrendered their arms to the government with the aim of quitting the group and bringing them to an end.

Conclusion

              ISIS and Al-Qaeda movement is a group of terrorists that was created by individuals with religious-oriented international goals. ISIS has been recognized globally as a group which carries out violent acts like beheadings, executions, and rapes. ISIS has also claimed various terrorist attacks in the Middle East and other parts of the world. The main aim of the ISIS was to fight those who are against Islamic religion and to pose threats to the US security. ISIS descended from Al-Qaeda group whose central principle was to use violent Islamic Caliphate attacks to do away with the western culture in the Muslim lands and to restore those regions. ISIS and Al-Qaeda have been involved in many terror attacks like shooting people in Charlie Hebdo Paris in 2015.

              ETA and CIRA groups, however, are the non-nationalist movement that is not recognized as terror groups internationally. They are nationalist organizations looking to form their own country through the use of violence if necessary. The groups are located in Europe, unlike ISIS and Al-Qaeda which is based on Syria and Afghanistan. Additionally, CIRA originated from the old IRA and is still aiming at driving the British away from Ireland. ETA’s primary aim, however, was to fight against the democratic government and the civilians who are against the Basque religion. The two groups, national and international, are similar in that they all have the purpose and course to pursue the sake of the society by using violent approaches.

References

“Al-Qaeda International.2001” FBI, FBI, 8 Dec. 2001, archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/al-qaeda-international.

Barros, C. P., Caporale, G. M., & Gil-Alana, L. A. (2006). ETA Terrorism: Police Action, Political Measures and the Influence of Violence on Economic Activity in the Basque Country.

Byman, D. (2015). Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the global jihadist movement: What everyone needs to know. What Everyone Needs To Know.

Canel, M. J. (2012). Communicating strategically in the face of terrorism: The Spanish government’s response to the 2004 Madrid bombing attacks. Public Relations Review38(2), 214-222.

Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS is not a terrorist group: why counterterrorism won’t stop the latest jihadist threat. Foreign Aff.94, 87.

Dalacoura, K. (2006). Islamist terrorism and the Middle East democratic deficit: Political exclusion, repression and the causes of extremism. Democratization, 13(3), 508-525.

Dijkstra, H. (2016). Syria, The Islamic State, And Terrorism. Contemporary Security Policy,         37(2), 273-318.

Farwell, J.P., 2014. The media strategy of ISIS. Survival56(6), pp.49-55.

Gesink, I. F. (2014). Islamic reform and conservatism: Al-Azhar and the evolution of modern Sunni Islam (Vol. 10). IB Tauris.

Harik, J. P. (2005). Isis: The changing face of terrorism. Ib Tauris.

Khan, A., & Estrada, M. A. R. (2016). The effects of terrorism on economic performance: the case of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Quality & Quantity, 50(4), 1645-1661.

LaFree, G., Dugan, L., Xie, M., & Singh, P. (2012). Spatial and temporal patterns of terrorist attacks by ETA 1970 to 2007. Journal of Quantitative Criminology28(1), 7-29.

Sidahmed, A. S. (2018). Islamic fundamentalism. Routledge.

Sullivan, J.L., 2015. ETA and Basque Nationalism (RLE: Terrorism & Insurgency): The Fight for Euskadi 1890-1986. Routledge.

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                                              Annotated Bibliography

Sidahmed, A. S. (2018). Islamic fundamentalism. Routledge.

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429968143

 This article talks about the terror attacks of the ISIS and the Al-Qaeda groups and the strategies that these groups used to achieve their mission. The author also discusses the historical background of the two groups, their ideologies, and the divisions between the ISIS and the AL-Qaeda. This article gives an overview of the origin of the transnational groups, their motives, and the violent activities of the groups. This article gives some of the distinctive features of the two transnational groups that can be used to determine how the group differs from the national groups like the ETA and CIRA.

Farwell, J.P., 2014. The media strategy of ISIS. Survival56(6), pp.49-55.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00396338.2014.985436

This article talks about various tactics and weapons that were used by the terrorists to carry out the attacks in and outside the European countries. It also gives some of the targets and missions of the terrorists during the attacks and some of the reasons why they were conducting the attacks. It gives some of the international events that motivated the transnational terrorists by looking at some of the damages done by these groups after the attacks.  The article also focuses on the tactics that were used by the two groups, their political and ideological frameworks during the attack periods.  In this line of thought, the article can help in showing the comparison between the terrorists that carry out their attacks internationally and those that focus on their own countries. This can be achieved by comparing the motives of the groups, their targets and the kind of damages caused after the attacks.

LaFree, G., Dugan, L., Xie, M., & Singh, P. (2012). Spatial and temporal patterns of terrorist attacks by ETA 1970 to 2007. Journal of Quantitative Criminology28(1), 7-29.

Retrieved from,

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-011-9133-y

 This article gives various categories of terrorists. It groups the AL-Qaeda and the ISIS as the transnational groups while the ETA and CIRA are classified as the national groups. The article further explains that the transnational terrorists groups have been known to cause the attacks globally and are usually motivated by the international events. However, the article talks about the ETA and CIRA groups as the national tourists that have not been declared globally to cause terrorist attacks. The main aims of the national terrorists are connected with religion, social revolutionary movements, political installations, political leaders and the diplomatic personnel within the country. The paper also explains some of the recent events that have been carried out by the CIRA and ETA like the bombings and shooting attacks in various parts of their own countries. This article will give the learner a clear picture of how the terrorist groups are classified and the basis of this classification.

Harik, J. P. (2005). Isis: The changing face of terrorism. Ib Tauris.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GhaRWhOowCkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=Harik,+J.+P.+(2005).+Isis:+The+changing+face+of+terrorism.+Ib+Tauris.&ots=rMXMooP3O0&sig=OcoWOiY7iVLrph43cdv0snxiUIA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

This book gives the description of the origin, the historical background and the principles of the national terrorist groups, ETA and CIRA. It explains that the ETA group was developed after the fall of the Franco regime during the democratic era in France. According to the article, the primary enemy of the ETA group during this era was the government of Spain and the attacks were as a result of the political and religious motives. For instance, it discusses how ETA group focused on fighting against the groups that did not believe in the nationalism and culture of the Basque religion.  Besides, the article talks about the tension caused by the CIRA to be as  a result of the religious references and the nationalism. This book can help the reader to understand how the national groups came to exists, what motivates them to conduct the attacks today and whether they are still threat to their countries.

Dijkstra, H. (2016). Syria, The Islamic State, And Terrorism. Contemporary Security Policy,         37(2), 273-318.

 Retrieved from,

https://www.narcis.nl/publication/RecordID/oai:cris.maastrichtuniversity.nl:publications%2F2e176517-d5ef-4c80-ba2c-c6f2b5f8dfdb

 This article talks about the origin of the ISIS and the Al-Qaeda. It also shows how the two groups are related and some of the similarities between the groups that made them to be linked together as the transnational terrorist groups. One of the main feature indicated in the article that differs these two groups from the national groups like the  ETA and CIRA is that, the ISIS and the Al-Qaeda has been involved in many globally terrorism. It is also explained that these trans-national groups are located in the middle east countries.  According to this article, the ISIS was found in Syria with the aim of carrying out the attacks against those against the Islamic religion. It also talks about the Al-Qaeda that was based in Iraq and was against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. According to the article the ISIS was considered as the Caliphate. This article is helpful in that, it shows the features of transnational terrorist groups that can be used to compare it with the national groups.

Barros, C. P., Caporale, G. M., & Gil-Alana, L. A. (2006). ETA Terrorism: Police Action, Political Measures and the Influence of Violence on Economic Activity in the Basque Country. Retrieved from,

http://buratest.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/1028

 This article analyses the periodical proceedings of the ETA. It shows that over the past 15 years, the ETA activity has substantially decreased and changed in some form. The article shows that the killings have become more specialized targeting politicians and reporters. It shows that the terror groups are currently applying a new phenomenon that is based on the urban guerrilla tactics that are termed as kale borroka or street fighting. This tactic has emerged, where it has created an atmosphere of violence in the streets. The paper creates a daily measure of violence in the area, while it also examines the police action and the repressive policy measures that have been adopted by the US government to reduce the intensity of terrorism across the globe. The article shows that the main aim for the formation of terror groups such as the ISIS and Al-Qaeda was to fight the Western countries which had interests in the Middle East particularly Iraq and The Afghanistan. It also shows that the primary intention of their formations was to unite the Arab nation so that they can collaborate in fighting the development of the Islamic Revolution in the Middle East.

Byman, D. (2015). Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the global jihadist movement: What everyone needs to know. What Everyone Needs To Know. Retrieved from,

https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2JzoCQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=Byman,+D.+(2015).+Al+Qaeda,+the+Islamic+State,+and+the+global+jihadist+movement:+What+everyone+needs+to+know.+What+Everyone+Needs+To+Know.&ots=ac9wLXHmJT&sig=ZQSwj_86KC_SlMctydfvmBbffnA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Byman%2C%20D.%20(2015).%20Al%20Qaeda%2C%20the%20Islamic%20State%2C%20and%20the%20global%20jihadist%20movement%3A%20What%20everyone%20needs%20to%20know.%20What%20Everyone%20Needs%20To%20Know.&f=false

            This book talks about the impact of the Anti-Soviet Jihad on the Jihadist Movement. It gives a historical account of how the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, which set the motion of a chain of events that led to the creation of the Osama-led group; Al-Qaeda. It also gives the accounts of the Soviet occupation of, and the eventual defeat of the Afghanistan-shaped ideology and strategies that the group used, which currently remains an important motivation for the entire Jihadist movement of today. It shows that after the invasion of the Soviets in 1979, there was a prop-up of a local communist regime that led to the turbulence of the uprising of the Islamist regime. The Islamist groups had to take up arms with the uprising of a range of the Islamist and tribal groups that took up arms such as the Mujehidin. This was a group of Muslims who could take up arms in the name of their religion to fight fiercely. The book also depicts the figures of the Soviets who lost their lives, which is estimated to be over 15,000 with an additional 49,000 who were wounded. The book also gives the figures of the mujahedin fighters who lost their lives, including 75,000, while those who were wounded were more than this figure. The book shows that the four associations including the ISIS, Al-Qaeda, CIRA, and ETA were formed majorly to promote the agenda of revolutionary change within the Islamic Movement. These groups are shown to use violence and terror for the radical political aims either at the national or the international levels.

Canel, M. J. (2012). Communicating strategically in the face of terrorism: The Spanish government’s response to the 2004 Madrid bombing attacks. Public Relations Review38(2), 214-222. Retrieved from,

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0363811111001937

            This article depicts the strategies that the terror groups used in the face of terrorism and how the Spanish government responded to the 2004 Madrid bombings. The article shows the need of development of strategic communication models in the face of terrorism. It shows that with the reemergence of terrorism, national governments must strategically manage their communications. The article gives an analysis of the effect of the Spanish government’s messaging in the face of the Madrid bombings in March 11, 2004. It criticizes the efforts of the media, which did not cover and frame the events of the happenings. It also shows how the framing context can help in the development of the responsive models against the attackers. The article takes framing as a strategic action in a discursive form, where it utilizes the attribution theory of responsibilities to show how the framing contest triggered a battle among the various media channels.

Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS is not a terrorist group: why counterterrorism won’t stop the latest jihadist threat. Foreign Aff.94, 87. Retrieved from,

https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/fora94&div=43&id=&page=

            This article shows the development of the national terror groups and the reasons as to why counterterrorism would not stop the Jihadist threat. The article gives an account of the events that have led to the spread of the terror groups and their future developments in response to the US and the Western unions in fighting against what they term as the “Holy War.” It shows that in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Washington was not ready for the challenges that were posed by the unconventionally adversary such as Al-Qaeda. It also shows that after the US had built an elaborate bureaucratic structure of fighting the Jihadists, a different group known as the ISIS became the forceful terror group that reformed to press forth the Islamic Revolutionary agenda. The article shows that with the development of the trans-national terror organizations, the national terror groups will continue to evolve.

Dalacoura, K. (2006). Islamist terrorism and the Middle East democratic deficit: Political exclusion, repression and the causes of extremism. Democratization, 13(3), 508-525. Retrieved from,

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13510340600579516

            This article talks about how the 9/11 attacks in the US created a consensus among the Western countries, while the policy makers that authoritarianism in the Middle East could undermine the Western interests by making contributions to the emergence of the Islamist terrorism. The article demonstrates that there lacks evidence that a casual relationship is depicted between the democratic deficit in the region and the Islamic terrorism. It explores the three major types of terrorism, including the transnational terrorism that is purported to be carried out by Al-Qaeda, the Islamist terrorism that is associated with national liberation movements like the Hezbollah and the Islamist terror in that is defined in terms of the domestic insurgencies such as the Egyptian Gamaa Islamiya. The article shows that the political exclusion and repression of these Islamist movements has largely contributed to the adoption of the terrorist approaches in advancing the revolutionary slogan of Islam.

References

“Al-Qaeda International.2001” FBI, FBI, 8 Dec. 2001, archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/al-qaeda-international.

Barros, C. P., Caporale, G. M., & Gil-Alana, L. A. (2006). ETA Terrorism: Police Action, Political Measures and the Influence of Violence on Economic Activity in the Basque Country.

Byman, D. (2015). Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the global jihadist movement: What everyone needs to know. What Everyone Needs To Know.

Canel, M. J. (2012). Communicating strategically in the face of terrorism: The Spanish government’s response to the 2004 Madrid bombing attacks. Public Relations Review38(2), 214-222.

Cronin, A. K. (2015). ISIS is not a terrorist group: why counterterrorism won’t stop the latest jihadist threat. Foreign Aff.94, 87.

Dalacoura, K. (2006). Islamist terrorism and the Middle East democratic deficit: Political exclusion, repression and the causes of extremism. Democratization, 13(3), 508-525.

Dijkstra, H. (2016). Syria, The Islamic State, And Terrorism. Contemporary Security Policy,         37(2), 273-318.

Farwell, J.P., 2014. The media strategy of ISIS. Survival56(6), pp.49-55.

Gesink, I. F. (2014). Islamic reform and conservatism: Al-Azhar and the evolution of modern Sunni Islam (Vol. 10). IB Tauris.

Harik, J. P. (2005). Isis: The changing face of terrorism. Ib Tauris.

Khan, A., & Estrada, M. A. R. (2016). The effects of terrorism on economic performance: the case of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Quality & Quantity, 50(4), 1645-1661.

LaFree, G., Dugan, L., Xie, M., & Singh, P. (2012). Spatial and temporal patterns of terrorist attacks by ETA 1970 to 2007. Journal of Quantitative Criminology28(1), 7-29.

Sidahmed, A. S. (2018). Islamic fundamentalism. Routledge.

Sullivan, J.L., 2015. ETA and Basque Nationalism (RLE: Terrorism & Insurgency): The Fight for Euskadi 1890-1986. Routledge.

3 Thoughts to “Annotated Bibliography and thesis statement sample paper”

  1. […] An annotated bibliography. This one is basically a list of all sources referenced in your paper, with short summaries explaining their significance. […]

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