Biography Research Paper Instructions

During this course, you are required to research and write an 8–10-page paper that incorporates at least 6 sources and explores the archaeological contributions of 1 of the following renowned biblical archaeologists:

  • William Foxwell Albright
  • Agatha Christie
  • Roland de Vaux
  • Nelson Glueck
  • Kathleen Kenyon
  • T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
  • Henry Layard
  • Ehud Netzer
  • Flinders Petrie
  • Henry Creswicke Rawlinson
  • Ronny Reich
  • Edward Robinson
  • Charles Warren
  • Leonard Woolley
  • Yigael Yadin

If there is an archaeologist who you would like to research but is not on this list, contact your instructor for approval.

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NOTE: You are NOT permitted to do your Biographical Research Paper on the archaeologist who excavated the site for your Excavation Report. For example: If you did your Excavation Report on Jericho you CANNOT do your Biographical Research Paper on Kathleen Kenyon. If you write on Masada you CANNOT do Yigael Yadin. If you did the Pool of Siloam you cannot do Ronny Reich, etc.

Your paper must be in current Chicago-Turabian Full Note format (including footnotes and bibliography) and include a minimum of 6 sources. For assistance using Turabian visit Liberty School of Divinity Turabian Writing Guide for help.

For further instructions, see the Instructions for Written Assignments in the Additional Materials folder in Blackboard.

This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 7.

Research Paper Grading Rubric

CriteriaLevels of Achievement
Content 70% 140Advanced 90–100%Proficient 70–89%Developing 1–69%Not present
Introduction and thesis statement14 to 15 points Exceptional introduction (1 page min) that grabs interest of reader and states background information, provocative questions, topic, thesis and all subtopics in proper order, thesis exceptionally clear, arguable, well developed, and a definitive statement.11 to 13 points Proficient introduction (less than 1 page) that states background information, provocative question, topic, thesis, and all subtopics in proper order; – thesis is a clear and arguable statement of position.1 to 10 points Adequate introduction (short) that states topic, thesis and some of the subtopics; thesis is somewhat clear and arguable.0 points Not present
Body27 to 30 points 8-10 pages (min) of well written material.21 to 26 points 7-8 pages of well written material.1 to 20 points 6 pages or less of poorly written material.0 points Not present
History of the person’s life  27 to 30 points Covered the high points of the archaeologist’s life.21 to 26 points Covered the high points of the archaeologist’s life but some of the important points were missing.1 to 20 points Missed several important aspects of the archaeologist’s life.0 points Not present
History of the person’s contributions to Archaeology27 to 30 points Covered the high points of the archaeologist’s contribution to archaeology. 21 to 26 points Covered the high points of the archaeologist’s contribution to archaeology, but a few of the important points were missing.1 to 20 points Missed several important aspects of the archaeologist’s contribution to archaeology.0 points Not present
Conclusion14 to 15 points Exceptional conclusion (1 page min) that grabs the interest of readers and provides a personal reflection.11 to 13 points Proficient conclusion (less than 1 pages) that provides a general reflection and provides a personal reflection.1 to 10 points Provides a conclusion (paragraph) without providing a general reflection and a personal reflection.0 points Not present
References18 to 20 points Included minimum of 6 academic sources.14 to 17 points Included 5 academic sources.1 to 13 points Included less than 5 academic sources.0 points Not present
Structure 30% 60Advanced 90–100%Proficient 70–89%Developing 1–69%Not present
Spelling & Grammar11 to 12 points No mistakes8 to 10 points One to two mistakes1 to 7 points More than two mistakes0 points Not present
Sentence Structure11 to 12 points Sentences were complete and clear.8 to 10 points Sentences were generally complete and clear, but with a few mistakes.1 to 7 points Sentences had several mistakes.0 points Not present
Title page11 to 12 points Title page was according to Turabian.8 to 10 points Most of the information was present but was not in Turabian.1 to 7 points Most of the information was not present but was not in Turabian.0 points Not present
Citations & bibliography11 to 12 points Footnotes and bibliography were according to Turabian.8 to 10 points Footnotes and bibliography were according to Turabian style with minor mistakes.1 to 7 points Footnotes and bibliography were not according to Turabian style with many formatting minor mistakes.0 points Not present
Margins & Pagination11 to 12 points Margins & Pagination were according to Turabian.8 to 10 points Margins & Pagination were according to Turabian but with several mistakes.1 to 7 points Margins & Pagination were not according to Turabian.0 points Not present

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BIOGRAPHY: KATHLEEN KENYON

In most cases, biographies are used to share and learn more about another person’s life. While some prepare biographies with the motive to share someone else’s experiences and life entanglements, others do so because they find the other party’s life history interesting. The application of a particular theme in contemporary life is also worth mentioning. Granted that people share experiences and have commonalities in various aspects of life, biographies inspire individuals to shape their future while emulating them as role models. Although there are several biographies, the denotable underlying harmony projects the inspiration behind writing and reading another person’s life history, including their achievements and failures.

For this reason, this paper aims to provide a discussion of Kathleen Kenyon’s biography. It is essential to consider her as a subject since the story of her life holds a remarkable position in shaping the history of the world. In many facets, Kathleen’s life is an inspiration to women, especially those intending to venture into grounds that are considered male-oriented. As Archeologist, Kenyon and many other women played a significant role in streamlining women’s paths, achieving more or less of what was thought to be specifically for men. Kathleen’s biography is not only worth writing but also worth reading. It unfolds the turn of events in her life by highlighting and expounding her childhood, family history, education life, marriage, career, and work-life. In particular, reading her biography helps readers deduce life lessons as depicted in life’s various achievements and failures.

Family life: Birth and Childhood

Among the most controversial and demarcated Archeologist in 20th-century history is Kathleen Kenyon. It is said of her that even she never imagined she could attain the standard she attained. The demands were far higher than she and many others thought. According to [1] her full names were Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon, born on January 5, 1906, in London, England. As a British Archeologists, Kenyon was more than autocratic and overconfident. Her personality was calm and attractive, making her such a fascinating figure in the world’s history. In numerous instances, many have asserted that parents are the ultimate emulatable figures to their children. Whatever their words and actions, parents’ influence upon their children’s character is a pivotal force that no other outside person can exert.

Like her great-grandfather, Lloyd Robert Kenyon, a politician and lawyer, named as the first Baron Kenyon, and grandfather, John Robert Kenyon, a lawyer and Fellow of All Souls College, Kathleen is also listed among the pioneers of modern field methodology and made similar contributions to her counterparts, both male and female. Born to Sir Fredric Kenyon and Amy Kenyon, Kathleen was the first child, followed by her sister, Nora Kenyon. The two were the only children of their parents. His father was at first a biblical scholar but later ventured into the British Museum’s directory.[2]  Her father made a significant contribution to the history of archeology and biblical discoveries and was a devoted scholar of ancient languages.

Correspondingly, her mother, Amy Hunt Kenyon, studied at the Somerville College and made a significant contribution not only to history but to the life of her children, inspiring them to become what they desired. As the saying goes, ‘your children become what you are,’ was undoubtedly depicted in Kathleen’s life.[3] Since the father was the Director of the British Museum at Bloomsbury in London, it is in this district that she was brought up with her family. History portrays Kathleen as a go-getter and hard-headed tomboy. Among her favorite activities include but are not limited to climbing trees, fishing, gaming, and other various sporting activities.

Like her father, Kathleen was introverted and portrayed the same regard for order and fascination with particularity.[4] Agreeably, these merits would later prove of great significance regarding the line of work she pursued. With her sister, Nora Kenyon, her father determined that his children gain access to the best education, including encouraging them to embrace extensive reading and independent study. Interestingly, because their house was attached to the Museum, Kathleen could spend time in the Museum, continuously igniting her passion for archeology.

Necessary to note, Kathleen was a remarkable student during her years of study, particularly when schooling at St. Paul’s Girls’ School. While here, she gained numerous awards and excellently succeeded in history, even becoming the Head Girl.[5] For instance, Kenyon won an Exhibition to read History at Somerville College Oxford. After joining Oxford, she persisted with her determination and won a Blue for the college during hockey games. By 1929, Kathleen graduated and began her career in archaeology by joining the British Association’s expeditions. Noteworthy, Kenyon never got married, neither did she have children. She devoted herself to archaeology while nurturing and mentoring other passionate archaeologists with the same determined passion.

Work-Life and Career

Kathleen was not the first female to venture into a field primarily dominated by males. Her journey of a thousand miles began when she became the first female president of the Oxford Archaeology Society. Since a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step, Kenyon was determined to actualize her dreams and ambitions. She was among the few women who managed to rise to the top of their profession, despite the limitations.[6] For instance, Margaret Murray, an Anglo-Indian, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, historian, folklorist, was the first woman to be appointed as an instructor in archeology in the United Kingdom. Her significant achievements and unmatched perseverance became a pivotal force to many female archaeologists who followed, even to date.[7] Worth noting, Murray faced tremendous opposition any woman would ever face in the quest to become an archaeologist.

Another woman worth citing is Harriet Boyd Hawes, an American excavator and many first female archaeologists of her generation. Together with Amelia B. Edwards, an English novelist, journalist, Egyptologists, and traveler, the two had an enormous impact on the field. On balance, Kenyon joined a group of minor yet renowned women who successfully managed to scale up a mountain that seemed to many insurmountable. During the same year she graduated from College, Kenyon landed her first archeological field experience as an assistant and photographer.[8] Dr. Gertrude Caton-Thompson led the excavation that took place at Great Zimbabwe. In one of her comments, she mentions it was one of the most remarkable experiences. Successively, after the excavation, Kenyon contributed to Dr. Caton-Thompson’s Zimbabwe Culture article.

After the Southern Rhodesia excavation, Kathleen returned to England and again landed on another excavation quest. She was to join Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler on an excavation mission to Roman British town, at Verulamium, between 1930 and 1935.[9] Wheeler entrusted Kathleen with the directorate position after he and his wife, Tessa Wheeler, left the site to prepare reports and perform another excavation at Maiden Castle. For the three years between 1930 and 33, when Kenyon and the Wheelers worked together, she learned to meticulously control and record stratigraphic excavation, earning her the experience to oversee the site in absentia of the Wheelers. While her work at the Verulamium excavation was the commencement of a long engagement with Sir Mortimer, at the same time, Kathleen was a member of the Crowfoot expedition to Samaria. Here she managed to provide crucial dating materials for the Iron Age stratigraphy of Palestine, using the stratigraphic method, where she cut a trench across the mound’s summit. Further down, she made more trenches down the northern and southern slopes to obtain vital stratified data for the study of Eastern terra sigilata ware.

Since antiquity, Kathleen had expressed an unreserved interest in Palestine. Noteworthy, during the final season of the excavation at Verulamium, Kathleen uncovered the Roman Theater, which became one of its kind in entire Britain. During the same period of the 1930s through to the 40s, Kenyon gained much experience, alongside making numerous discoveries and findings.[10] However, most of her work was recognized beginning in the 1950s. Despite the hurdles entwined with World War II, Kathleen often lectured at the newly established Institute of Archaeology through the University of London’s sponsorship. At the same time, she served as the Divisional Commander and secretary of the Red Cross between 1939 and 1942 (ct). Noteworthy, Kathleen is recognized for her influential and robust personality, which significantly helped hold together the institution, particularly during the war.

The collaboration between Sir Wheeler and Kenyon allowed them to formulate new methodologies, which she used to obtain excellent results during the Palestinian excavation. From the divisional commander, Kenyon became the director of the Youth Department for the same institution. Additionally, Kathleen published the excavations she made at the Jewry Wall in Leister City, at the London News1937, with pioneering reconstruction drawings made by Alan Sorrell. He previously was engaged in its excavation. For more than a decade, while she continued to lecture at the Institute of Archaeology in Palestine, she at the same time supported Max Mallowan by terming him a dragon in promoting the institution’s welfare. Towards the beginning of the 1950s, she supervised the Phoenician and Roman site. The excavation quest took place at Sabratha, in Tripolitania. At the same time, she was tasked with a treasurer’s role for the Palestine Exploration Fund, where she served for the rest of her life.

Besides her excellent performance in matters of archaeology, Kathleen manifested proper and efficient administration and organization skills. According to [11] in 1951, she was again appointed as the British School of Archaeology director, located in Jerusalem. Founded in 1919, the institution, as the other where she previously held positions, provided her with more golden opportunities to utilize her skills and serve others with her gifts. Kenyon worked tirelessly to source funds for the school, bringing it back again into prominence.[12] She managed to secure funds from anonymous sources locally and internationally. Not to mention, Jericho’s excavation not only scaled her to prominence but also gained her a good reward, which also used to fund the British School of Archaeology, as it was lagging, even risking closure.

The excavation of Jericho was the most prominent archaeological activity that made Kenyon famous, as the discoveries made here, has a significant impact on the history of the world. Based on the explanation by (ct), Kenyon’s primary motive in excavating Jericho was to determine the precise dates when the first settlement was made, alongside the destruction of the city by Joshua and the Israelites. Surprisingly, she accomplished even more than she had intended. Before setting a course for Jericho, archaeologist, John Garstang had already begun excavating this old city. (ct), believes that John’s purpose of excavating Jericho was secured evidence for the biblical account regarding Joshua and their conquest for the land of Canaan. The same motive was shared by Kathleen, as previously mentioned. From 1930, Garstang spent the next six years moving thousands of tons of earth, having examined over 12 000 artifacts. After an involving excavation, John discovered that Jericho was previously occupied but never found enough evidence to back the idea of Joshua’s attack and conquering of the city.

When Garstang heard about Kenyon’s significant discoveries, particularly the Roman theatre’s uncovering, he decided to invite Kathleen to review the findings and give her a report regarding these extensive discoveries. Unaware of what awaits, Kathleen responded to the invitation-only to become one of his most defining moments. Upon arrival, she determined that Garstang’s work required significant changes. A complete excavation was inevitable to attain the initial excavation’s purpose; this is according to[13]. Consequently, in 1951, she administrated another excavation, incorporating the advanced methods pioneered by their collaboration with Wheeler. Garstang’s previous work only uncovered the collapsed walls and proved evidence regarding fires, as described in the Biblical record. Therefore, Kenyon’s main work was to revise this work and establish more discoveries and artifacts to support the Biblical record.

For this reason, Kenyon refined Garstang’s ideas of the Hebrew invasion of Canaan by suggesting and providing more evidence that the military had more extended reflections. Although Kenyon’s excavation of Jericho contributed to discovering the fallen walls, as denoted by, [14]Canaan’s entry by the Israelites is contemporary with the Late Bronze Age. Previous researchers had asserted that small occupation remained in Jericho due to the massive erosion during this period. Nonetheless, a most surprising discovery was made at Jericho, where extensive evidence was uncovered of domestic architecture dating back to as long as the seventh millennium. The discoveries at Jericho were considered even more significant, given the fact that they led to a new understanding of urbanization to early civilization in the Near Eastern region.

By applying the Wheeler-Kenyon method, Kathleen concluded that there were no walls to conquer in Jericho, a fact that caught many by surprise. In the end, most archaeologists subscribed to the idea and reiterated that Archaeology did not confirm the Biblical text of wall broken down. After Jericho’s excavation, Kenyon proceeded to excavate Jerusalem at the beginning of the 1960s through to the 70s. Progressively, she was now living on the verge of her final years. Kenyon served as the principal, St. Hugh’s College, Oxford. By the time she passed away, Kathleen had served as chairperson of the British School of Archaeology Council in Jerusalem. Markedly, in 1973, Queen Elizabeth II named her a Dame of the British Empire after acknowledging her accomplishments. She died an active member of the Fellow British Academy and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon suffered a stroke at the age of 72, which resulted in her death (1978).

In conclusion, Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon was the main subject throughout this biography. The essay has endeavored to highlight and expound on her childhood, family history, academic life, marriage, and professional life. In light of the above, Kenyon was born on January 5, 1906, in London, England. She was the first daughter of Sir Fredric Kenyon and Amy Kenyon and sister to Nora Kenyon. Kathleen began schooling at St. Paul’s Girls’ School and later joined Somerville College Oxford. After graduating in 1929, she began her career and never got involved in any relationship, even in the latter days of her life. Therefore, she was never married, neither did she have any children. Further, the essay identified the numerous excavation conducted by Kathleen, pinpointing Jericho’s excavation as the most significant one, which pivoted Kenyon’s escalation to the category of the few archaeologists women.

Bibliography

Callaway, Joseph A. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon 1906-1978.” (1979): 122-125.

Champion, Sara. “Women in British archaeology. Visible and invisible.” Excavating Women: A history of women in European Archaeology (1998): 175-97.

Meheux, Katie. “‘An Awfully Nice Job’. Kathleen Kenyon as Secretary and Acting Director of the University of London Institute of Archaeology, 1935–1948.” Archaeology International (2018).

Milne, Laurie. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land.” (2009): 317-319.

Milwright, Marcus. “Re-excavating Jerusalem: Archival Archaeology. (The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, 2016.) Xiii, 147 pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2018. £ 35. ISBN 978 0 19 726642 7.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London 82, no. 3 (2019): 539-540.

Moorey, P. R. S. “British women in Near eastern archaeology: Kathleen Kenyon and the pioneers.” Palestine exploration quarterly 124, no. 2 (1992): 91-100.

Tushingham, A. D., M. M. Tushingham, P. R. S. Moorey, Peter Parr, and Kathleen Mary Kenyon. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon. A Personal Appreciation.” Archaeology in the Levant (1978): 9-10.


[1] Milwright, Marcus. “Re-excavating Jerusalem: Archival Archaeology. (The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, 2016.) Xiii, 147 pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2018. £ 35. ISBN 978 0 19 726642 7.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London 82, no. 3 (2019): 539-540.

[2] Champion, Sara. “Women in British archaeology. Visible and invisible.” Excavating Women: A history of women in European Archaeology (1998): 175-97.

[3] Tushingham, A. D., M. M. Tushingham, P. R. S. Moorey, Peter Parr, and Kathleen Mary Kenyon. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon. A Personal Appreciation.” Archaeology in the Levant (1978): 9-10.

[4] Tushingham. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon. A Personal Appreciation.” Archaeology in the Levant (1978): 9-10.

[5] Milne, Laurie. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land.” (2009): 317-319.

[6] Callaway, Joseph A. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon 1906-1978.” (1979): 122-125.

[7] Milne, Laurie. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land.” (2009): 317-319.

[8] Meheux, Katie. “‘An Awfully Nice Job’. Kathleen Kenyon as Secretary and Acting Director of the University of London Institute of Archaeology, 1935–1948.” Archaeology International (2018).

[9] Meheux, Katie. “‘An Awfully Nice Job’.

[10] Moorey, P. R. S. “British women in Near eastern archaeology: Kathleen Kenyon and the pioneers.” Palestine exploration quarterly 124, no. 2 (1992): 91-100.

[11] Moorey, P. R. S. “British women in Near eastern archaeology

[12] Tushingham, A. D., M. M. Tushingham, P. R. S. Moorey, Peter Parr, and Kathleen Mary Kenyon. “

[13] Milne, Laurie. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land.” (2009): 317-319.

[14] Milne, Laurie. “Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging Up the Holy Land.”