1. Mrs. Perez, 32 years of age, is a Hispanic patient who is admitted for early stage cancer of the uterus. The surgeon stated that in order to treat Mrs. Perez’s cancer successfully, the uterus will need to be removed surgically through a procedure called a simple hysterectomy leaving the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina. The surgeon requests that the nurse make arrangements for an interpreter, so they can both use the interpreter’s services. The patient only speaks Spanish, but her mother and one of the patient’s sisters are bilingual. They are currently visiting the patient. Her husband is also visiting and he only speaks Spanish. The patient’s two children are with her sister Maria. The family stated they are devout Catholics and request to see a priest while in the hospital. Today is Ash Wednesday. (Learning Objective 4)

  1. Which interpreter is the most appropriate choice to communicate with Mrs. Perez and why?
  2. After critically analyzing the cultural influences, what nursing actions are appropriate for the patient? 

2. The nurse manager of an ambulatory care clinic has noted an increased number of visits by patients from different countries and cultures, including patients from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Concerned about meeting the needs of this culturally diverse population, the nurse manager convenes a staff meeting to discuss this change in patient demographics, and to query the staff about any learning needs they have related to the care of these patients. (Learning Objective 3)

  1. What strategy to avoid stereotyping clients from other cultures should the nurse include in this meeting?
  2. Identify culturally sensitive issues to be discussed in the staff meeting.
  3. One technician on the staff complains that some patients never make eye contact, and this makes it difficult for him to complete his work. How should the nurse respond?

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Case Study, Chapter 5, Adult Health and Nutritional Assessment

1. Mrs. Jones, a 40-year-old female patient, is presenting for a history and physical. The nurse gathers a family history from the patient. She shares that her mother died at 70 years of age of colon cancer and had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. She had a stroke before passing away. Her father died at 67 years of age from a stroke. He had a long history of alcoholism and smoked two packs per day of cigarettes for 50 years. He had hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and two heart attacks; the first heart attack was at 30 years of age and the second at 52 years of age. He had adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents since 50 years of age. He had renal stenosis that was unsuccessfully treated with a renal angioplasty and he developed end-stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Mrs. Jones has two brothers. One brother developed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents at 50 years of age. The second brother has no health problems. The maternal grandmother died at 88 years of age of a stroke and had hypertension. The maternal grandfather died at 70 years of age of a massive heart attack and had a history of hypertension. The paternal grandmother died at 80 years of age of a heart attack. The paternal grandfather died at 50 years of age from bleeding esophageal varices related to long-standing alcoholism. The patient shares that her mother’s first cousin, George, died at 52 years of age of Hodgkin lymphoma. She has another first cousin Mabel, 72 years of age, who is alive but has had cancer of the colon and had a recent stroke, and has a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with diet. Her mother’s sister, who is 68 years of age, is alive and has a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Her mother’s brother died at 68 years of age of renal cancer and had a history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and adult onset diabetes controlled with oral agents. He also had a heart attack at 45 years of age and a coronary artery bypass graft operation of three vessels at 55 years of age. He smoked cigarettes for 50 years. The patient’s father was an only child and her father’s family all lived to be over 80 years of age. (Learning Objective 5)

  1. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s first-order relatives have?
  2. What genetic-related diseases do the patient’s second-order relatives have?
  3. Optional: Draw a genogram of the patient’s family’s health history using the example in the textbook (see Fig. 5-2) as a guide.

2. The registered nurse prepares to conduct a nutritional assessment on Mrs. Varner, a 52-year-old Caucasian female who describes herself as “overweight most of my adult life.” The client states that her health is good. She works part time as a receptionist and volunteers about 10 hours per week in her church. The nurse obtains Mrs. Varner’s height as 64 inches and her weight as 165 pounds. (Learning Objective 8)

  1. What is the rationale for computing body mass index? What is Mrs. Varner’s BMI? 
  2. Calculate her ideal body weight. What is your assessment of her BMI and weight?
  3. Based on Mrs. Varner’s BMI and weight, the nurse measures her waist circumference. Describe the proper procedure for this assessment.
  4. Mrs. Varner’s waist circumference is 38 inches. What is your assessment? 
  5. What laboratory values would the nurse review to evaluate Mrs. Varner’s protein levels?

Case Study, Chapter 6, Individual and Family Homeostasis, Stress, and Adaptation

1. Mr. Smith, a 52-year old patient, is admitted to the coronary care unit with the diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction. The patient has a history of smoking two packs per day of cigarettes for 35 years, and he drinks a six-pack of beer on weekend nights, but does not drink the rest of the week. He is the sole financial support for his family. He is a consultant for a company and is out of town during week days. Over the past year, Mr. Smith has gained 20 pounds. He is 5 foot 6 inches, weighing 200 pounds. His diet consists mostly of fast food. He rarely exercises. His wife cares for their three teenage children. The eldest son, 17 years of age, totaled the family car when drinking and driving 2 days ago and he is in the local children’s hospital in the intensive care unit in critical condition. Mr. Smith developed chest pain and slumped over in his chair during an argument with his wife about their teenage daughter, who is 15 years of age and wanted to get birth control pills. The wife is in the waiting room while the nurses settle Mr. Smith into his room. The youngest son, 13 years of age, is at a friend’s house. The teenage daughter is staying at the bedside of the critically ill eldest son. The wife blames her eldest son for her husband’s heart attack and told the emergency department nurse that she does not care to see her son at all. (Learning Objectives 6, 10, and 11)

  1. What maladaptive responses to stress may have contributed to Mr. Smith’s development of an illness? 
  2. Based on the case study, what family assessment data may be used to determine coping strategies being currently used by the family in crisis?
  3. What nursing interventions should be used to promote effective coping for the patient and his family?

2. Mary Turner stepped on a nail 5 days ago and sustained a puncture about 1 inch deep. She immediately cleaned the area with soap and water and hydrogen peroxide, and applied triple antibiotic ointment to the site. Today she comes to the clinic with complaints of increased pain and swelling in her foot. On assessment, the nurse notes that the puncture site is red and edematous, and has a moderate amount of yellowish drainage. (Learning Objective 9)

  1. Describe the sequence of events that caused the local inflammation seen in Mary’s foot.
  2. What is the role of histamine and kinins in the inflammatory process?
  3. Which of the five cardinal signs of inflammation does Mary exhibit?
  4. Because Mary’s injury occurred 5 days ago, the nurse should assess for what systemic effects?

Case Study, Chapter 11, Health Care of the Older Adult

1. The nurse working at the senior center notices Mrs. Jones, a 78-year-old, crying. The nurse approaches Mrs. Jones and asks if she needs help. Mrs. Jones states “I am so embarrassed. I had another accident and my pants are all wet. It’s like I’m a baby. I never should have come to the senior center.” (Learning Objectives 3 and 4)

  1. What factors may be contributing to the urinary incontinence? 
  2. How should the nurse respond to Mrs. Jones?

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2. The nurse is completing the admission assessment for a patient scheduled for cataract surgery in the outpatient center. Because the patient is over the age of 70 and has several chronic conditions, including hypertension and congestive heart failure, the nurse focuses on completing a thorough medication history. (Learning Objective 4)

  1. What questions should the nurse include in the medication history?
  2. The patient states that she stopped taking one of her medications due to cost, since her health insurance would not reimburse for the medication. What are other reasons that older adults may be noncompliant with ordered medications?
  3. How does aging affect drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion? 

Case Study, Chapter 8, Overview of Genetics and Genomics in Nursing

1. A patient who is 38 years of age is diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary disease that results in fluid-filled cysts occupying space in the kidneys. The cysts can interfere with the function of the kidney and may burst and cause bleeding inside the kidney. The patient with polycystic kidney disease may or may not have a berry aneurysm of a blood vessel in the brain that could lead to bleeding and death, cysts on the ovaries, and a mitral valve prolapse (in females) that can lead to dysrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), or diverticula (outpouching of the bowel) that are susceptible to infection and inflammation and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient is susceptible to retaining fluid in the abdomen so the abdomen is large to constipation, and to hypertension. There is no cure for the disease. The patient receives supportive care for the various symptoms or complications the patient may have. (Learning Objectives 1 to 3)

  1. When explaining to the patient and family about polycystic kidney disease, the nurse should explain what characteristics about an autosomal dominant genetic disease?
  2. How does variable expression of genetic characteristics play a role in the course of polycystic kidney disease and how can the nurse further predict the level of the disease?
  3. Identify the roles of the nurse in integrating genetics in the nursing care provided for the patient.

2. Mr. Wayne is a 38-year-old man with a significant family history of elevated cholesterol levels. His father died at age 42 from a massive heart attack secondary to elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, and two of his older siblings are currently taking medications to lower their cholesterol levels. Mr. Wayne makes an appointment to discuss his risk for hypercholesterolemia. The nurse recognizes that Mr. Wayne is at risk for familial hypercholesterolemia because this is an autosomal dominant inherited condition. (Learning Objective 2)

  1. Describe the pattern of autosomal dominant inheritance.
  2. Mr. Wayne asks what chance his children have of developing familial hypercholesterolemia. How should the nurse respond?
  3. Explain the phenomenon of penetrance observed in autosomal dominant inheritance.