Minimum Content of the Scientific Report Title  The title should be a brief summary statement about your paper. Your title will be what is most commonly cited and will be the “target” of topical searches via the internet. Choose your words carefully. As short and as concise a title as possible is best.  Each student will come up with the title! You might consider waiting until after completing the report to finalize the title.

 Abstract  Think of the abstract as a short summary of your paper that could stand-alone as a publication. The abstract should include, in order: a summary of the introduction, methods, results, and discussion. However, you may include only key results and key discussion points in the abstract. Do not include reference to figures and tables, and don’t use abbreviations. Don’t include references in the abstract. This is the hardest section of the paper to write, and should be written after you complete the other sections.  Minimum of 200 and maximum of 300 words in a single-paragraph format. Introduction  The introduction should include a detailed explanation about why you are doing the study, i.e., the basis for your study.  This section should include observations or results from previous studies that support the basis for your study, but not the results or discussion or conclusions drawn from the results of your project.  Follow these observations or results from previous studies with the questions or hypotheses of your study.


 The introduction should end with a brief paragraph that summarizes the setting, scope, and justification or importance of the study. This is a lead-in paragraph to the rest of the paper.  Minimum of 1/2 page of text in length with one or more paragraphs. 2 Methods  Write the methods in the past tense.  This should be a detailed, step-by-step, description of how you did the study.  Include details on the equipment and materials used (see list below).  Include the approach to data analysis and cite any statistical or other applications used to input, manage, graph, or analyze the data.  Include citations for any standard or previously published methods used.  Write this section with enough detail that someone else could duplicate your study or conduct a similar study with only your methods section available.  Include a map showing the location, sampling area, and plot and belt transect in the sampling area.  Minimum of one page of text in length with multiple paragraphs. Results  This the “what you got” section.  Write the results in the past tense.  This sections includes any data or results tables and graphs you have.  This is a summary of your key results from data, graphs, and/or results of statistical analyses.  You are not required to include a statistical analysis(-es).  You are required to include summary statistics for each data set (plot and belt transect) including the mean, maximum, minimum, variance and standard deviation.

 If you do include a statistical analysis (-es), include the result of each statistical analysis that supports a result(s) as below. o ….there was no statistically significant difference (df=9, p>0.05, t=3.89) between mean species diversity scores….  You are not drawing conclusions, stating reasons, or interpretations in this section; only stating what you found.  Minimum of one table that includes summary statistics for each variable by method.  Minimum of two graphs included in this section. Each graph not larger than 1/3 of a page. Insert the graphs in the text of the results section.  Minimum of one page of text in length with multiple paragraphs. Discussion  This is the section where you interpret and evaluate your results.  Explain how you results supported or did not support the objective(s), hypotheses, or stated purpose(s) of the paper.  Put your conclusions in scientific context by comparing to previous studies that had similar or even different conclusions.  End with implications of one or more of the conclusions for any future studies.  Minimum of ½ page with one or more paragraphs. 3 References Sited  Include full citations of the references cited in your paper, and only the references you included in text.  Only use journal articles (no books) as references, and a minimum of two references.  Use this format for each journal article reference. o Jones, J. B. and Smith, R. L. 1980. Key findings by The Flat-Earth Society. Journal of Alternative Earths, 50, p. 210-244. Minimum Requirements  Title o Include names of all members of your lab group  Abstract (min. 200 words and max. of 300 words)  Introduction (min. ½ page of text)  Methods (min. of 1 page of text) o Includes a map of the study area.  Results (min. of 1 page of text) o Include min. of 1 table for summary statistics.

o Include a min. of 2 graphs. o Make sure graphs can “stand alone!”

 Discussion (min. of ½ page of text)  References Cited (min. of 2 references)  Max. of 1.5 spacing and max. #11 front  Grading based on meeting all minimum requirements, graphs and the map being neat and complete, each paper = one student, and minimal grammatical and mechanical errors. o 75 points plus up to 10 extra points based on originality and overall quality of the report. Equipment and Materials  Garmin Montana 610 hand-held GPS for coordinates of the SW corner of sampling area  Google Earth Pro to reconnoiter and ultimately locate sampling area.

 Various cell phone compass apps for making 90-degree turns off each corner of sampling area

 50 cm tree calipers  15 cm calipers  Meter (1 m in length) stick  30-meter calibrated rope for delineating each sampling cell.  RAND (randomization function) in Microsoft Excel for randomly determining location of belt transect and plots.  Surveyor pin flags to mark perimeter of sampling area.