Taylor Wester

HIST 405N

Chamberlain University

July 7, 2021

Critical Reasoning Project W1

Part #1

Topic: Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes inside the body’s cells to stop or treat a disease. Gene therapy can also be defined as a technique that utilizes genes to prevent or treat a disease (Deverman et al., 2018). In the future, the technique might allow physicians to treat a disease by inserting a new gene into the body’s cells instead of conducting surgery or using drugs. Gene therapy is more likely to treat cancer, heart disease, fibrosis, AIDS, hemophilia, and diabetes.

Part #2

Should gene therapy be allowed?

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Part #3

I will examine the following aspects in my paper: law enforcement aspect, safety aspect, and ethical aspect. I have chosen the aspect of law enforcement as I want to analyze the legal issues surrounding gene therapy. I have also chosen the safety aspect to evaluate any safety issue related to gene therapy. According to research, a gene cannot be inserted directly into the body cells. Instead, it is delivered using a vector. Viruses are the most common vectors as they can identify certain cells and transfer genetic material into the genes. This process can, however, result in several safety risks in the body. I also chose the ethical aspect because I want to assess the ethical issues surrounding the technique. Gene therapy entails making changes to the body’s cells. This can raise several ethical concerns. Some of the moral questions surrounding the technique are:

  • Should individuals be allowed to use gene therapy to improve basic human characteristics such as athletic ability, intelligence, or height?
  • Who decides which human characteristics are normal?
  • Could the extensive use of the technique make the community less accepting of individuals who are different?
  • Which traits constitute a disorder or disability?

References

Deverman, B. E., Ravina, B. M., Bankiewicz, K. S., Paul, S. M., & Sah, D. W. (2018). Gene therapy for neurological disorders: progress and prospects. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery17(9), 641-659.

W2 Issue Review

Taylor Wester

Chamberlain University

PHIL347N

July 18, 2021

W2 Issue Review

Ginn, S. L., Amaya, A. K., Alexander, I. E., Edelstein, M., & Abedi, M. R. (2018). Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2017: An update. The journal of gene medicine, 20(5), e3015.Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3015

This article discusses the concept of gene therapy and how it is being used in the modern medical environment. Ginn et al. (2018) assert that Gene therapy has in the recent years evolved with a huge success in genetic medicine, laying a key cornerstone for the development of medical technologies. Also, it outlines how over 2600 gene therapy clinical trials have proven important in disease control and treatments. They also discuss the progress gene therapy is causing and advancements in genome editing.The articles covers the first aspect of the critical reasoning paper.

Gabriel, W. (2017). The CRISPR-Cas9 mediated disruption in the ethics of gene therapy: an analysis of contemporary developments. Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://digitalwindow.vassar.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1727&context=senior_capstone

This article discusses the contextualization of gene therapy and how it has redefined the process of understanding the course of humanity from birth to death. The author discusses different concepts involved in the use of gene therapy and whether the new normal should be embraced. Gabriel asserts that indeed gene therapy is the new normal and the future for medical innovations. It is legal and we should embrace it.

Bilkey, G. A., Burns, B. L., Coles, E. P., Bowman, F. L., Beilby, J. P., Pachter, N. S., … & Weeramanthri, T. S. (2019). Genomic testing for human health and disease across the life cycle: applications and ethical, legal, and social challenges. Frontiers in public health7, 40.Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00040

This article discusses the ethical, legal and social challenges that genome therapy and testing faces from early human life to the elderly and aged within the society. The article discusses the application of gene therapy and testing within the healthcare spectrum while identifying challenges at each stage and phase of life. Some of the challenges include the definition of terms used in genomic testing, and how data and information on gene testing are protected and shared. The article covers the third aspect of the critical reasoning paper.

References

Bilkey, G. A., Burns, B. L., Coles, E. P., Bowman, F. L., Beilby, J. P., Pachter, N. S., … & Weeramanthri, T. S. (2019). Genomic testing for human health and disease across the life cycle: applications and ethical, legal, and social challenges. Frontiers in public health7, 40.Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00040

Gabriel, W. (2017). The CRISPR-Cas9 mediated disruption in the ethics of gene therapy: an analysis of contemporary developments. Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://digitalwindow.vassar.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1727&context=senior_capstone

Ginn, S. L., Amaya, A. K., Alexander, I. E., Edelstein, M., & Abedi, M. R. (2018). Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2017: An update. The journal of gene medicine, 20(5), e3015.Retrieved on 17th July 2021 from https://doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3015

Thesis and Annotated Bibliography for Gene Therapy

Taylor Wester

Chamberlain University

PHIL 347N

July 8th , 2021

Annotation 1

10.1089/hum.2019.197

Concerning the issue of Human Gene Therapy on August 2014, the source offers information regarding how gene therapy is a fast developing field of science and medicine and as more discoveries are made concerning it, the more the general community accepts it, with remarkable dispensations. A study was conducted in United States and Canada involving 467 respondents and signified that above 90% think gene therapy is justifiable for acute illnesses like Alzheimer’s but as the acuteness of the illnesses declined so did respondents approval of gene therapy. Any non-illness affiliated use of gene therapy only got 47% approval from the respondents.

Source Evaluation 1

1a. Even though the sample size is only 467 respondents the percentages offered from the study indicates high approval than opposition and when likened to statistics in the 1990’s it reveals a rise in acceptability.

1b.This is a scholarly source that has been in a peer reviewed journal known as Human Gene Therapy.

1c.Whereas this source is somehow old fashioned examining the massive growth gene therapy has experienced in the last four years in exploration and discoveries, the ordinary misjudgments the made by the general public regarding gene therapy still exists.

Annotation 2

https://www.pnas.org/content/94/24/12744

This source was released in the National Academy of Science concerning the varied kinds of vectors that can be applied in gene therapy. Even though there have not been numerous favorable outcomes that have been testable, this paper outline what research has been capable to do. There are numerous varied viral vectors that can be applied in gene therapy. This source explains what each vector is apt for as well as any limitation that they may entail when likened to other vectors. Additionally, the article reviews some non-viral vectors as options to the viral vectors because they have less possibility of relocating to the wrong body parts and give rise to cancer.

Source Evaluation 2

2a.This source emphasizes on particular illnesses that are being aimed by gene therapy which provides us an insight in what direction the research is moving.  

2b.Issued by the National Academy of Sciences in the United States, it is a highly recognized source that has been cited in other research papers.

2c.The source gives extensive scientific information concerning how each vector can and cannot work, providing details on comprehending how gene therapy functions.

Annotation 3

https://www.nature.com/articles/nm0101_33

This scholarly journal issued in nature medicine in 2001 and it describes the utilization of viruses and how they are transformed into harmless curative vectors for gene therapy. It also explains what scientists search for in viruses that make them suitable vectors for gene therapy.  In addition, they identify issues that come with the utilization of foreign bodies in the human body and offer cases of cellular immune responses to the viral vectors which function against what gene therapy is attempting to achieve.

Source Evaluation 3

3a.Whereas numerous scholarly articles concerning intricate subjects like gene therapy are hard to read, their provision of images and description of certain terminologies makes it simpler to study.

3b.In the last section they provide a list what is, to them, an ideal accomplishment with regard to viral sector. This enables us to have an insight of what their final motive would look like.

Annotation 4

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/hum.2019.197

This source is a comprehensive analysis of more than fifteen thousand records concerning the views and stance towards gene therapy and gene editing completed on January 21, 2020. The source findings were categorized into common themes comprising of somatic vs. germline, medical vs. nonmedical reasons, knowledge/education, and many more. In addition, incorporated were proposition and imminent directions research on gene therapy could espouse to augment public support. This comprised ideas like better education on the subject, standards of approval, policy frameworks, and invasive procedures. After examining all the records, it is revealed that public view on gene therapy is constantly trending more positive.

Source Evaluation 4

4a.This article was released in Human Gene Therapy peer reviewed journal which promotes its reliable status and is authoritative and credible.

4b.In efforts to be clearer, they list the search process and selection method for the records they used for this study.

4b.Generally, it is a systematic review of views and perceptions towards gene therapy answers numerous questions regarding what sort of demographics oppose and support gene therapy.

Annotation 5

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9bc1/dec53860a2cc9a291f3fff7887151cbd77e0.pdf

This is a source on extensive debate on the ethics of gene editing and the varied ramifications it could entail on community as outline by professor Santas of the University of California. Considering the distinct utilization of each application of gene editing, he analyses how today’s community is reacting to each application. Moreover, he categorizes how we are to reason concerning gene editing, is it bad or good. Grouping into the ethics of human development is a discussion weighed down with risk as any error can subject you into precarious territory.

Source Evaluation 5

5a.This is among the limited sources I could get that offers such as comprehensive review into the thoughts of ethics of applying gene editing for the aims of human improvement.

5b.Though it was inscribed by a single author, it is released in a peer reviewed journal and should be marked as a scholarly source as well as credible.

References

Delhove, J., Osenk, I., Prichard, I., & Donnelley, M. (2020). Public Acceptability of Gene Therapy and Gene Editing for Human Use: A Systematic Review. Human Gene Therapy, 31(1-2), 20–46. doi: 10.1089/hum.2019.197

Kay, M. A., Liu, D., & Hoogerbrugge, P. M. (1997, November 25). Gene therapy. Retrieved February 9, 2020, from https://www.pnas.org/content/94/24/12744

Kay, M. A., Glorioso, J. C., & Naldini, L. (2001, January). Viral vectors for gene therapy: the art of turning infectious agents into vehicles of therapeutics. Retrieved February 9, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/nm0101_33

Robillard, J. M., Roskams-Edris, D., Kuzeljevic, B., & Illes, J. (2014). Prevailing Public Perceptions of the Ethics of Gene Therapy. Human Gene Therapy, 25(8), 740–746. doi: 10.1089/hum.2014.030

Santas, G. (2019). CRISPR and The Ethics of Gene Editing: A Modest Framework for Discussion. International Journal of Clinical Research and Trials, 4(198), 1–7. doi: https://doi. org/10.15344/2456-8007/2019/138

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