Module 2: Assignment

Assignment: Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework.

Learning Materials

  • Curley, A. L. C., & Vitale, P. A. (2016). Population-based nursing: Competencies and concepts for advanced practice (2nd ed.). Springer Publishing. Read Chapters 2 & 3.
  • Friis, R. H. & Sellers, T. A. (2021) Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett. Read Chapters 2-7, 9-10.
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). (2017, January 31). National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 
  • Hellwig, J. (December/January 2013). “Safe to Sleep” Campaign. Nursing for Women’s Health16(6), 505.
  • First Candle. 
  • Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

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Additional Resources

Assignment:

What are some of the common databases readily available to use for public health programs/initiatives, program planning, monitoring, and evaluation? What other databases have you used in the past? Are there other data elements you expected or wanted but failed to find a database?

Include at least the U.S. Census, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Immunization Survey (NIS), National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) and Guttmacher Institute in your inventory. It is suggested the student complete a chart based on the following format:

NameType of dataLevel of dataTimeframeLocationComments
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)Pregnancy and postpartumNationally, available for participating statesAnnuallyCDC website and/or state websiteNot available for all states.
  1. Column 1: Give the complete name of the database.
  2. Column 2: Describe what type of data would be found in this database.
  3. Column 3: Give the lowest denominator level such as national, state, city or county, census tract, or neighborhood.
  4. Column 4: Describe when the data is available on time frames, such as annually or biannually, or every five years.
  5. Column 5: Describe where the data can be found and how it can be obtained.
  6. Column 6: Add any pertinent information; you may want to identify whether this database is private or government.
    • What is the difference between incidence and prevalence? How would the public health nurse use these concepts in examining statistics regarding the health district she resides in. Give an example of when incidence would be used; give an example when using prevalence data may be more appropriate.
    • What is the purpose of the development of Healthy People Objectives? Have you used these objectives in any of your work experience? If so, in what ways. If not, what factors have contributed to your lack of experience or exposure?
    • Why is knowledge of epidemiology critical for population nursing practice?

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500 – 2000 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions clearly and concisely. Include the table with database data.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this

assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and

references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include

at least two (2) scholarly sources to support your claims.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc

or .docx).

Filename: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHallAssignment1.docx”)

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Module 2 Assignment

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Module 2 Assignment

Introduction

A database comprises a collection of data, information and it is mainly structured for quick search and recovery by a computer. In most cases, databases are organized in such a way that they enable storage, recovery, modification, and erasure of data in combination with the different data processing operations. For healthcare catalogs, they are systems in which the healthcare workers regularly enter clinical and laboratory data. One of the most well-known and used forms of healthcare databases is electronic health records (EHRs). This assignment will highlight the various databases that are freely accessible for public health programs, program planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Further, the paper will highlight health people objectives and their importance in nursing practice while indicating the need for epidemiology in nursing practice.

NameType of dataLevel of dataTimeframeLocationComments
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS)Pregnancy and postpartumNationally, available for participating statesAnnuallyCDC website and/or state websiteNot available for all states.
U.S CensusU.S population DataNationally, Available across all statesEvery ten Years (Decennial)State WebsiteThis is a government website.
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)Statistical informationNationallyAnnuallyCenter For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)This is federal government Website.
National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)Health and nutritional status of adults and childrenNationallyAnnuallyCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)This is a government website
National Immunization Survey (NIS)Check vaccination coverage and provide dataNationallyAnnuallyCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)This is a government website
National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)Gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men’s and women’s health.NationallyFive years cycleCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).This is a government website.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)Collects data on health related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services.NationallyAnnuallyCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).This is a government website
Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS)Specific Health care measures, customer satisfaction,Nationally across all states. Private non-profit organisation.This website belongs to National Committee on Quality Organisation.
Guttmacher InstituteSexual and Reproductive health.NationallyAnnuallyPrivate NGOThis is non-Governmental organisation website. 

Difference between Incidence and Prevalence

The incidence and prevalence rates of disease are vital pointers of population health standing. In most cases, these two form the measure of disease frequency, and they form the basis of monitoring disease, formulating and evaluating health policies, and conducting scientific research. According to Spronk et al. (2019), the incidence of the disease comprises the rate of novel occurrences of a medical condition in a particular populace and those in danger of contracting the medical infection arising in a given period. In retrospect, the prevalence is the part of a specific population which have become impacted by a specific medical condition at a given point in time or a specified period of time.

 A public health nurse can use these theories in investigating the statistics regarding the health district she resides in to identify all those individuals that are at risk of the medical disorder, monitor the progress of the disease, specify the areas of health care need, determine the scope of programs to implement in the population, and evaluate their overall impact (Spronk et al., 2019). While the incidence and prevalence rate does not always provide the direct patient care needed by patients, they always serve as a resource and plan educational programs. As a result, the health nurse can understand which resources that needs to be used in the health district and the approach mechanisms for handling the disease and prevent its progression while reducing risks to other members of the population.

Example of When Incidence and Prevalence Can be Used

Valid incidence and prevalence rates are essential since they form the basis for monitoring disease and at the same time formulate policies. Incidence and prevalence are used for different purposes and to answer additional questions. According to Noordzij, Dekker, Zoccali, and Jager (2010), the incidence rate can be used to reflect the number of new cases of a disease and can be used to express the risk. Therefore, the incidence rate can also be used to measure the number of people at risk of a certain disease as such implement preventive measures in the population. The risk of a disease is the probability that a given individual in a population will develop a given disease or other health outcomes over a specified period of time.

In retrospect, the prevalence rate indicates the existing disease patterns and can be used to measure disease status. The prevalence rate shows the proportion of people with the disease in a given population. The prevalence rate shows the burden imposed by a given disease in the population with such knowledge helping policymakers decide which investments should be targeted in healthcare (Noordzij, Dekker, Zoccali and Jager, 2010). For instance, if health care practitioners understand the prevalence rate of end-stage renal disease, they can know the need for dialysis facilities and other related costs.

Purpose of Development of Health People Objectives

The primary role of the development of healthy people objectives is the development of a set of science-based, a decade national objectives with the primary aim of refining the health of individuals Americans. During the development of healthy people, objectives always include the implementation of an agenda for the initiative, the vision, mission, plan of action, and the overarching goals. In developing the healthy people objectives, it lays out the objectives of moving the country toward better health that is further distilled into topic areas (“Healthy People 2030 Framework”, 2021). As a result, with the objectives, the country can manage to reduce health disparities in its population and among those people at risk of health disparities, such as racial minorities and members of the LGBT community. For racial and ethnic minorities, health disparities can take many forms, such as higher rates of chronic disease and premature death. 

As a nurse, I have severally used healthy people objectives in the nursing practice. In most cases, I have used these objectives to identify the most significant threats to health and therefore establish the personal goals that’s I need to reduce the threats in the population. The primary vision of the healthy people framework is to have an equitable society in which all people live long, healthy lives (“Healthy People 2030 Framework”, 2021). Therefore, as a nursing practitioner, with the healthy people objectives, I become better placed to implement preventive measures, empower the individuals in the community to make informed health decisions, and collaborate with other members of the health profession to improve the overall health of the specific population.

Knowledge of Epidemiology Critical for Population Nursing Practice

Nurses are at the forefront of patient care, and they have adopted an important role in public health administrative practices and also in responding to public health emergencies. In case of a disease outbreak, nurses are, in most cases, the first health professionals’ acquaintances in such tragedies when vital data needs to become identified and reported. 

The health of a population always depends on many factors. According to Gulis and Fujino (2015), epidemiology is a discipline that has an essential function in highlighting the health status, classifying risk factors, and examining the connection between health and hazardous agents. Epidemiology is used in measuring the relationship that exists between the hosts and agents in a specific environment and at the same time analyzing the health status of the population living in that environment. Since epidemiology is an essential aspect of public health, its primary aim is to contribute to the fulfillment of the definition of public health as a science and as an art to promote health and prevent disease occurrence through organized effort in society (Gulis & Fujino, 2015). However, in nursing practice, there is a need to use and translate the knowledge produced by epidemiology to improve the health status of the population by translating this knowledge into interventions. 

The adoption of epidemiological studies can also offer assistance on the way nurses integrate health-related practices into their nursing practice. Since epidemiology entails the study of disease progression, individuals in nursing practice can use this information to prevent the occurrence of future outbreaks. 

As a nursing profession, the knowledge of epidemiology can assist in the adoption of a responsible public health approach that can incorporate the use of data obtained during the investigation of the disease to formulate health policies for the protection and benefit of the public. For nurses in nursing practice, they must be familiar with epidemiology, current disease statistics, health surveillance, and the current health policies to effectively deal with illnesses that transcend the individual. It is essential that all nurses engage in advanced practices such as epidemiology since this they have clinical expertise and are capable of functioning within their community and influencing and evaluating health policy changes. In most cases, nurses have access to families, and they have opportunities to establish beneficial relationships with those members of the community. 

Such interactions with members of a community can help in detecting health problems early; as such, when intervention programs become implemented, they become more effective, and the expenditure of scarce health resources becomes reduced (Gulis & Fujino, 2015). In most cases, the leading health indicators in a community are always preventable diseases; as such, the knowledge of epidemiology can offer resources to the health professionals that can help them implement and promote preventive measures in the community.

Conclusion

The above analysis has highlighted various concepts that are of importance in healthcare. For instance, a database is essential as it forms a collection of data that can give information about a specific illness. Further, the paper has highlighted the importance of epidemiology as it helps identify risk factors and describe the health status of a population.

References

Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, Population Health, and Health Impact Assessment. Journal Of Epidemiology25(3), 179-180. doi: 10.2188/jea.je20140212

Healthy People 2030 Framework – Healthy People 2030 | health.gov. (2021). Retrieved 25 March 2021, from https://health.gov/healthypeople/about/healthy-people-2030-framework#:~:text=Healthy%20People%202030’s%20overarching%20goals,and%20well%2Dbeing%20of%20all.

Noordzij, M., Dekker, F., Zoccali, C., & Jager, K. (2010). Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence. Nephron Clinical Practice115(1), c17-c20. doi: 10.1159/000286345

Spronk, I., Korevaar, J., Poos, R., Davids, R., Hilderink, H., & Schellevis, F. et al. (2019). Calculating incidence rates and prevalence proportions: not as simple as it seems. BMC Public Health19(1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6820-3