have attached journals one and two to help with the first two questions!  Writing requirements are also attached.


  • Critical Thinking
    • Go back to your very first journal entry – review your definition of critical thinking. After studying critical thinking for the past eight weeks, would you change your definition in any way? If yes, how and why? If no – if it was perfect – what parts of the text were best reflected in your definition?
  • Heart of the Matter
    • Recall in your first journal entry that you discussed the authors’ statement that the concepts in Chapters 12, 13 and 14 were “the heart of the matter.” After having studied those chapters, answer again, with renewed understanding, the question posed there: Why do you think the authors find these concepts important to critical thinking?
  • Ethical Decision-Making
    • The lecture claims that an argument is no good unless it has a “strong and reasoned ethical base.” Do you agree that ethics is an essential element of a good argument? If yes, why? If no, why not?
  • Looking Forward
    • Do you believe that you now know everything you need to know about critical thinking – or is learning to think critically a life-long task? Explain your answer.

Week 2 Journal

Taylor Wester

Chamberlain University

July 18, 2021

Important Idea

“Making arguments and giving reasons to communicate the basis for our beliefs and decisions are universal in our species” is the most valuable and important idea in the section. The idea is valuable for a variety of reasons. One of the reasons is that it provides a valid discussion that is applicable in different times. From the past times to the modern times, beliefs and conviction that one has on a given aspect of life is determined by the argument and reasons given. The greater the conviction one has, the stronger the argument the individual is likely to use in supporting the reason for believing whatever he or she believes in. Irrespective of where the belief or the individual lives in, there has to be sound reasons that make the individual have the conviction to what he or she beliefs in.

Critical Thinking

One of the concepts raised in chapter 4 that might make the analysis difficult is the idea of the Biblical books such as Genesis being written before the development of science and yet using science as a basis of science. The chapter supports the use of science as the main tool used in making analysis to determine the validity of the concepts raised in the Bible.  This means the Genesis cannot be analyzed through the scientific principles brought by the development of science. However, all ideas discussed in the book of Genesis are existence in science which means science has basic principles which can serve as basis for the analysis. Another actor that makes it difficult to make analysis is limiting science as the only basis that can be used in evaluating any body of knowledge whereas the world comprise of more disciplines. For instance, an analysis can be done based on an approved theory such as behavioral theories.


I believe what I believe because it is verifiable through empirical data analysis. One of my beliefs is that mindset and perception towards a given activity determines the outcome from engaging in the activity. This is because a student may perceive a course to be difficult to understand and perform well and end up experiencing poor results in the examination or continuous assessment tests. If the student shifts the perception of the subject or course and start perceiving the course or unit as simple and easy to understand and perform well, the academic performance on the will start improving. The reason for believing this is because there are facts developed from past research studies.

There has been evidence on the relationship between mindset, perception and the outcome or results obtained from engagement on a given activity. Research conducted by psychologists on specific participants show a high correlation between the perception of a participant and the respective performance (MacLean et al, 2019). For instance, on a research done on runners, participants who had a positive attitude towards winning the race actually won in the race.


MacLean, S., Geddes, F., Kelly, M., & Della, P. (2019). Realism and presence in simulation: nursing student perceptions and learning outcomes. Journal of Nursing Education58(6), 330-338.

Critically thinking

Taylor Wester

Chamberlain University

July 11, 2021

The ability to think clearly and effectively in order to influence one’s actions, thoughts, beliefs, and behavior is referred to as critical thinking. Independent thinkers, critical thinkers examine a variety of ideas and their relationships in order to find the best solution. A person might use this method to advocate for anything by combining his or her expertise, experience, and research-based information. As a result, critical thinking enables a person to notice, formulate, and analyze a wide range of arguments, as well as to solve them using a systematic approach that incorporates ethics, values, and beliefs (Facione & Gittens, 2016).

The book highlights the necessity of thinking critically in our lives. Thinking critically helps in solving different problems. As a result, people are able to make objective and rational decisions.  Critical thinking should be fostered, according to the textbook, because it aids in the settlement of tough personal, political, economic, and social problems and issues that pose substantial threats/risks to an individual. Attempts to stifle, divert, derail, or distract critical thinking leads to irrational, unbiased, irrational, and poor decisions, which exacerbate problems. From the book, so as to think critically, a person should interpret, analyze, infer, evaluate, explain, and self-regulate in order to make the better decisions.

With the capability to think critically, students are equipped with abilities to solve problems and make decisions. Thus, they have an easy time in school. Chapters 12, 13 and 14 give important patterns of human reasoning. Students are able to evaluate and recognize ideological, empirical and comparative reasoning. The primary concepts governing human reasoning and critical thinking are referred to as the “heart of the matter.” As a result, the chapters are structured to outline the major patterns involved in critical thinking, thus the title of the book.

The chapters, entails two basic contexts. These are assessing and noticing thinking capacity. Students are able to distinguish the advantages, hazards, and applications of each context of thinking. Recognizing that a problem exists and how to solve it indeed requires critical thinking as well, it entails considering the pros and cons before one makes a decision. The key concepts. To think critically, recognition and assessment are important as they allow the people to think independently and solve problems. 

Managing classwork and work is my greatest struggle. It may appear as straightforward tasks, but devising an effective calendar to help me balance the tasks require critical thinking. As the leader of marketing in work place, critical thinking will help manage my work and class. Critical thinking will help create a strategy that will help me balance classwork and career. The first three chapters will be beneficial to me in accomplishing this task.


Facione, P., & Gittens, C. A. (2016). Think critically. Pearson