follow these instructions properly

The Midterm will cover Chapters 6-9 topics.  Please review the power point slides as well as your notes from our live sessions (including discussions and discussions from the news) and please read the included material. 

Please read and watch:

Answer all questions in this section (1-5):

Chapter 6.  Business Ethics and Ethical Decision making.  Please see the College of Business Ethics Slides.

Using the College of Business Ethics Slides as a reference, what are Ethics?

What are the 5 main ethical perspectives.  Please describe each using a brief example.

Chapter 7.  Strategic Approaches to Improving Ethical Behavior

Using the College of Business Ethics Slides, wWhat is the most important aspect in Ethical Decision making in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility?  Please explain.

Chapter 8.  We looked at the role of the employee as a stakeholder.  We examined the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities related to employees. We also looked at how employees choose an employer in the relationship to the social responsibility of a company. 

What is a social contract between an employer and an employee?  How does the implicit duty establish rights and obligations for each party in an agreement?  How might this relate to a company’s stated values especially during the time of a pandemic? Please discuss AND provide an example.

Chapter 9.  Consumer Relations. As part of the company strategy, the organization must reconcile the needs of the different stakeholders.  Chapter 9 addresses some of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities in relation to customers.

List and describe at least 3 consumer rights that have become social expectations of business. Why have some of these rights been formalized through legislation (laws)?

Now please choose 1 to answer in this section (limit: 1 page, 11 point font, double spaced):

‘California Proposition 22.  App-based drivers as Contractors, Not Employees’ carves out a special provision in the law so people who would otherwise be employees under the law (of Uber, Lyft, DoorDash, etc), no longer are employees.  https://voterguide.sos.ca.gov/propositions/22/  Currently what makes someone an independent contractor in California? https://www.dir.ca.gov/dlse/faq_independentcontractor.htm  How does this propositions change that?  Is this a socially responsible action by organizations such as Uber, Lyft, and DoorDash, or not (in relation to California’s At Will employment provisions, minimum wage, and living wage)?

Is CSR a farce?  Are corporate promises in relation to CSR hollow? Please respond using topics and material in slides relating to chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9.  Please support your decision.

a) Business Round Table.org https://www.businessroundtable.org/business-roundtable-redefines-the-purpose-of-a-corporation-to-promote-an-economy-that-serves-all-americans

b)  Jane Nelson, Founding Director CSR Initiative – Harvard University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7lwKa_aiK4

c)  Robert Reich, Former Secretary of Labor.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nulcmxH9FGg 

Covid, CSR and BLM.  Based on the topics and material in slides relating to chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9, what role can corporations take in relation to CSR for African American stakeholders (including employees, consumers, shareholders, suppliers, etc.) to support equity?     

Corporate America Reacts to Black Lives Matter.  (1:40) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=531kMVD7Bmk

When a Brand Stands up for Racial Justice, Do People Buy It? https://hbr.org/2020/07/when-a-brand-stands-up-for-racial-justice-do-people-buy-it

McKinsey & Company Investing in Black lives and Livlihoods: What stakeholders can do.  (30 minute blog)  https://www.mckinsey.com/about-us/covid-response-center/leadership-mindsets/webinars/investing-in-black-lives-and-livelihoods-what-stakeholders-can-do

We will review this in class on Tuesday.  As always, pease feel free to reach out if you have any questions!

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Ethics

What are Ethics?

           Ethics is a system of principles that direct one’s conduct or behavior. With ethics, one can live a fulfilling life after determining right from wrong (Zeni et al., 2016). For real and practical guidance, ethics are very important.

What are the five main ethical perspectives? Please describe each using a brief example.

              The five main ethical perspectives include the moral rights approach, utilitarian approach, justice approach, virtue ethics, and the common good (Zeni et al., 2016). The moral right approach bases on acclaim for human nobility. This perspective avers that’s people nobility depends on their ability to decide what to do with their lives autonomously. The approach cites that a person has his/her liberties that cannot be violated or limited by other persons. Therefore an ethical decision ought to uphold the rights of those directly connected or affected by it. The moral right approach is applicable when intellectual property is subject to sullied by an outsider. Content creators have the right to challenge and voice against what affects them. Showing an honor of dignity is exercised when the affected have to decide on their own. The utilitarian perspective weighs a deed based on the results or consequences. Through the utilitarian approach, one is geared towards achieving the utmost good for everyone while averting or causing problems or suffering. With consequentialism, the greatest good for the greatest number, such as creating jobs and fighting monopoly, is considered an ethical action.

               The justice approach coins that an ethical decision has to find a middle ground between the benefits and harms that come with it. Impartiality, equity, and fairness are the pillars of the justice perspective. In practice, a person should not take sides or favor conflicting individuals. To be considered ethical, one has to apply fairness irrespective of the demographics or differences involved. Unlike the justice approach, which gives room to rule about actions, virtue ethics hinge on one’s character as the drive to ethical thinking? For one to be considered with virtues, s/he must pursue the correct ideals. For instance, a person has to practice fairness, generosity, honesty, prudence, fidelity, respect, and integrity to be considered virtue oriented. Common good perspective refers to decisions taken to serves certain interests within the community. For instance, people who work together for a mutual goal and improve everyone’s well-being exercise the common good perspective.

What is the most important aspect of Ethical Decision making in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility? Please explain.

           Ethical sensitivity and recognizing that ethical issues exist is very important when an organization seeks to integrate social and environmental problems in its plan. Before any decision, an organization has to determine the implications or potential damage to the target community (Ali, Frynas, & Mahmood, 2017). Moreover, for a plan to work out, the company must determine who is to be involved and the possible courses of action. Ethical sensitivity also encompasses being aware of the facts and the set rules. Again, recognizing an ethical dilemma helps the organization take the right course of action.

What is a social contract between an employer and an employee? How does the implicit duty establish rights and obligations for each party in an agreement? How might this relate to a company’s stated values, especially during the time of a pandemic? Please discuss AND provide an example.

            In the past, the social contract between employees and employers was about employees getting reimbursed for the service they provide. Today, the social contract between employees and employers has changed due to technology’s involvement: education and career development, government, and labor unions (Kochan & Dyer, 2020). Work has become a social interaction rather than a way to get livelihoods. Each party in a social contract has to abide by the terms, moral and political rules of behavior, or instead quit altogether. Parties have a reason to endorse and comply with the set rules. In the most general sense, a company stated values during a pandemic ought to be rationally justified, appreciated, and accepted for an agreement.

List and describe at least three consumer rights that have become social expectations of the business. Why have some of these rights been formalized through legislation (laws)?

           The right to choose, the right to consumer education, and the right to be informed have become social expectations of the business (Cartwright, 2016). These rights have been formalized through legislation to enlighten and protect consumers from inappropriate business practices. Education and being informed helps consumers do their due diligence and ascertain how an organization is treating them. These laws are formalized to know that they have a say on products in the market. The right to choose is meant to ensure consumers purchase what suits their needs, get value for money and quality products without being manipulated or taken advantage of. The legalization of these rights is to boost consumer awareness and minimize unscrupulous business practices. Producers have to be held accountable for their mistakes if they break (Cartwright, 2016). Formalized legislation prevents exploitation of consumers and protects them from misleading information. 

Is CSR a farce? Are corporate promises about CSR hollow? Please respond using topics and material in slides relating to chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9. Please support your decision. 

           Corporate social responsibility is not a sham or a publicity stunt. Even though corporates pledge to help society to society, CSR can to entirely change the world. When an organization decides to give back to the community, it cognizes that the days of operating solely to make proceeds are gone. Since corporate social responsibility is not a legal requirement, corporate promises do not meet all expectations but make a desirable impact. The only concern with CSR is honoring honesty and keeping promises (Ali, Frynas & Mahmood, 2017). For the company’s image to bolster and build its brand, it has to be ethically sensitive. A utilitarian approach commonly employed in CSR is not enough without pursuing moral good, embracing the right values, and thinking about the common good. To build from community priorities and organization have to capitalize on proactive relationships. Socially-oriented actions and positions do not yield results instantly without assessing the company landscape, capacity, available resources, and anticipating some results. Consumer social responsibility is not a sham because, with goodwill, an organization can leverage its resources to impact society positively. Even though the business’s primary function is to make money and achieve self-interests, society needs to be maintained because all businesses are part of society.

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References

Ali, W., Frynas, J. G., & Mahmood, Z. (2017). Determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in developed and developing countries: A literature review. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management24(4), 273-294. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1410

Cartwright, P. (2016). Redress compliance and choice: Enhanced Consumer Measures and the retreat from punishment in the Consumer Rights Act 2015. The Cambridge Law Journal75(2), 271-300. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008197316000210

Kochan, T. A., & Dyer, L. (2020). Shaping the future of work: A handbook for action and a new social contract. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0019793917724421

Zeni, T. A., Buckley, M. R., Mumford, M. D., & Griffith, J. A. (2016). Making “sense” of ethical decision making. The Leadership Quarterly27(6), 838-855.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.09.002