Module 2: Assignment

Assignment: Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework.

Learning Materials

  • Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 4 & 9
  • Educational and Community-Based Programs | Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Healthy People
  • Center for Health and Health Care in Schools. (n.d.). Center for Health and Health in Schools.

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Assignment:

In an essay of 1500 to 2000 words, using at least 2 APA style cited references, write an essay in APA style on:

  1. Discuss the three levels of prevention. Of the examples given in your textbook, describe how one of each would be different based on the individual’s age.
  2. School nurses are called upon to collaborate with many different groups. Chapter 9 describes various laws on the school nurse. School nurses are impacted by the CDC more than any other agency. Discuss why that statement is true.
  3. Describe the difference between HIPAA and FERPA and how they affect a school health practice?
  4. Discuss the CAPTA and how it affects a school health practice.
  5. Discuss the connection between School Health and Public Health, giving examples from both chapters 4 and 9.

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500-3000 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions in a clear, concise manner.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page (if needed) in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)

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Introduction

            This essay aims to demonstrate mechanisms of disease prevention and discuss laws that influence school health practice. It discusses the three levels of Prevention, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s impact on School nurses. The roles played by Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act( FERPA), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act( HIPAA), Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) in promoting school health are discussed. Finally, the essay discusses the correlation between school health and public health.

Levels of Prevention

           The three prevention levels include primary Prevention, Secondary Prevention, and tertiary Prevention (WHO .n.d.). The three strategies play an important role in preventing diseases. Primary prevention is mostly applied during immunization. Primary prevention is commonly applied to the general population and adolescents. All basic vaccinations for children fall under primary vaccination. Secondary prevention involves continuous screening of pathological, epidemiological, and anatomic diseases that are common in adults. Secondary treatment also essences on risk factors that foster child maltreatment. Tertiary Prevention comes into play when primary and secondary prevention was unfruitful. Tertiary Prevention in children focuses on curbing neglect from the family.

Influence of Center for Disease Control and Prevention

           Center for Disease Control and Prevention impacts school nurses more than any agency. School nurses are subject to legal actions if they demonstrate laxity in saving lives and protecting children from security threats. The professionals are answerable to matters relating to medications at school, prescription, and risk factors. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention influences school nurses to administer child care programs for disease prevention effectively. School nurses should collaborate with other professionals to evaluate learners’ symptoms and exposures (Selekman, Shannon, & Yonkaitis, 2019). They have to reach out to educators and school administrators when applying disease mitigation strategies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensure school educators implement school-based testing strategies and perform contact tracing in school environments. Laws apply to all school nurses irrespective of their area of work and level of practice (Yoder, 2020). Regulations ensure school nurses perform their responsibilities such as patient assessment, therapy, and education within their scope of practice. Centers for Disease Control insists that the school nurse conforms to federal and state laws by providing care services to children with chronic conditions and disabilities. They are supposed to implement the student’s individualized healthcare plan. The CDC impacts school nurses because they have to exhibit leadership by responding to emergencies and ensure student’s health needs are met. School nurses play a role in easing the negative effects of healthcare problems by heightening screening and providing referrals for chronic conditions that need specialized intervention.

            Consistent with CDC, school nurses play a pertinent role in fostering a healthy school environment. Besides offering medical interventions, they have to ensure students are psychologically sound. CDC urges school nurses to partner with other professionals in developing and evaluating school health policies. The policies aim to promote health and school wellness, improve mental, infectious disease protection, and chronic disease management. The law requires them to report infectious illnesses and communicable conditions (Yoder, 2020). Environmental safety involves offering and monitoring immunizations, preventing bullying, school violence, and radicalization. In collaboration with other psychological professionals, the school nurse should provide counseling to prevent trauma, drug abuse, and suicide in students.  CDC guidelines are more connected to school nurses because they consider health education. School nurses have to partner with educators and indoctrinate students on health education. They have to use evidence-based resources when teaching students about diseases, prevention, and treatment. Together with other teachers and other care practitioners should take part in developing a health education curriculum. The studies should focus on oral health, substance use, physical exercise, early pregnancy prevention, nutrition, and sexually transmitted diseases, amongst others.

Difference between FERPA and HIPAA

           There exist an overlap between FERPA and HIPAA, but the two acts have different characteristics. The two acts aim to promote the protection of health data or information. The FERPA will cover public school educational records, whereas HIPPA rules cover private school educational records. HIPAA covers some learning institutions that offer healthcare services to non-students, but they should be recognized as covered institutions (Gelpi, 2020). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act is most influential in the healthcare industry.  The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act influence the education industry the most. Students protected health information is kept secure and private through HIPAA. Students are assured that their sensitive health information is protected under HIPPA.  Through HIPAA, patients are assured that their data will be stored electronically. Contrary, FERPA protects and covers all student education records (Gelpi, 2020). This information includes transcripts, family information, class schedules, and academic transcripts. All schools that are facilitated through the United States department of education are tied to FERPA laws.  Parents are partially permitted to access their children’s education records under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Gelpi, 2020). When the child reaches 18 years and joins college or university, all rights are transferred to him /her. Primary and secondary schools are not usually covered by the HIPAA privacy rule, especially if the school is not protected by HIPPA laws or when student health information is covered by FERPA rules (Gelpi, 2020). When a student joins a post-secondary institution, his/her information or records is protected under FERPA law. Even if HIPAA protects the post-secondary institution, the student’s records are omitted from the coverage.

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act

           Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) is a federal law that seeks to promote children’s welfare. The law centers on identification, prevention, and providing care to victims of child abuse. The act assimilates psychological health, legal activities, education, and social concepts in addressing child abuse in a school setup.  Schools nurse plays a significant role in administering Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in school environments. Through the law, the school must interact with students regularly to know their problems and their fears (Clay, Okoniewski, & Haskett, 2019). School nurses acquaint themselves with child maltreatment reporting through the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act. Therefore, the profession has to give heads up on suspicion of abuse, investigate child abuse claims. School nurses should take legal action against child abuse cases, significantly when the victim’s interests are compromised. The scope and standards of practice align with the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act since it allows school nurses to take legal action against violators of child security. Educators and school nurses have to listen and analyze somatic complaints in learning institutions (Clay, Okoniewski, & Haskett, 2019). Consistent with CAPTA, victims of maltreatment receive emotional and physical support from educators and school nurses. Educators and other employees can get training to identify cases of child maltreatment. An interpretation of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act helps school nurses, counselors, and educators to link child maltreatment victims to their community or family. By so doing, awareness is created, and mechanisms are developed to solve and reduce cases of maltreatment in school. 

Relationship between Public Health and School Health

           There is a correlation between public health and school health since all are aimed to provide care and improve wellness (Selekman, Shannon, & Yonkaitis, 2019). School health focuses on promoting healthy wellness in the education system. Students receive screening, medications, treatments, counseling, and referrals in educational environments through school health. Through school health, students acquire self-management skills to be applied in school and the community (Kolbe, 2019). Similarly, public health also imparts the community to find thriving mechanisms in any environment (Birch& Auld, 2019). Unlike school health that dwells on the educational system, public health considers inclusive environments to learn about diseases and prevention. School Health applies nursing, health education, social sciences, and physical education to create a healthful environment without infectious diseases and low incidences of diseases. In-school health, individuals have to attend school to learn about diseases and health. School health aims to improve and promote health through the school environments, whereas public health ponders on world or community health. Like school health, public health promotes wellness through education but includes other aspects such as disease research, policy development, and injury prevention (Selekman, Shannon, & Yonkaitis, 2019). Public health provides solutions to the health problems of communities without the percipience of the available groups. Public health harmonizes social health subjects with multidisciplinary subjects such as mathematics, biology, sociology, medicine, education, etc., to come up with collaborative solutions.  Both school health and public health emphases on prevention, but the group’s number and scope define the roles (Birch & Auld, 2019). Public health touches on healthcare access, disaster relief, immunization, amongst others. Public health is diverse, covering family planning, vaccination initiatives, disasters, water and sewerage management, hygiene, and motor vehicle safety laws.  Through public health programs, the communities comprehend issues that affect population health and healthcare structures. One example of public health initiative is indoctrinating the community about preventing contagious and infectious diseases, the importance of physical activity, making healthy choices, preventing injury, maintaining high hygiene levels, covering foods, and treating water and waste.

Conclusion

           The individual age directly influences the choice of level of prevention.  Tertiary Prevention and primary prevention are highly used in children and adults, whereas secondary prevention is widely used in adults, especially during screening and condition evaluation. Evidence shows that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influence school nurses’ function since they are the first line of student health promotion in schools. The agency touches on health policies, health education, treatment, improving wellness, disease prevention more than any other institution. The report shows that the HIPPA rule and FERPA are different. FERPA is more comprehensive in matters of educational information coverage than HIPPA laws. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act influence is most significant in the healthcare industry, while Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act impact is greatest in the education sector. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act is very important in promoting child welfare in an educational environment. All professionals have a role in applying and monitor CAPTA in schools. School health and public health have a similar objective which is to prevent diseases and promote wellness. School health improves public health. However, school health is limited to educational systems, whereas public health is focused on promoting health for all. Public health also considers policing, disaster management, and environmental factors that might affect communities.

References

Birch, D. A., & Auld, M. E. (2019). Public health and school health education: aligning forces for change. Health promotion practice20(6), 818-823. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1524839919870184

Clay, A. L., Okoniewski, K. C., & Haskett, M. E. (2019). Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119171492.wecad222

Gelpi, A. (2020). Learn how FERPA and HIPAA apply to student records. Campus Legal Advisor20(7), 4-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/cala.40196

Kolbe, L. J. (2019). School health as a strategy to improve both public health and education. Annual review of public health40, 443-463. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-043727

Selekman, J., Shannon, R. A., & Yonkaitis, C. F. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text. FA Davis.

WHO. EPHO5: Disease prevention, including early detection of illness. Euro.who.int. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services/policy/the-10-essential-public-health-operations/epho5-disease-prevention,-including-early-detection-of-illness2#:~:text=There%20are%20three%20levels%20of,and%20recovery%20(tertiary%20prevention).

Yoder, C. M. (2020). School nurses and student academic outcomes: An integrative review. The Journal of School Nursing36(1), 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1059840518824397