Module 6: Assignment

Assignment:

Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework. Each paragraph must have at least 2-3 in-text APA citation from the References list.

  Learning Materials

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 11, 23, 24, 25.

The Washington Post. (2020). Girl dies after getting sick at school without nurse.

Earls, M. F. (2014). ADHD: Collaboration on Diagnosis and Management among the Medical Home, School, and Family. Pediatric Annals, 43(5), 165-166.

Start by reading and following these instructions:

1.            Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.

2.            Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.

3.            Consider the course discussions so far and any insights gained from it.

4.            Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources if needed, use APA style as required, and check your spelling.

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Assignment: Submit a 1500 – 2000-word paper that addresses Asthma condition/care and Allergies care in school children, using at least 8 APA style cited references, complete the following:

1.            You have several students with asthma. Discuss the difference between an asthma action plan and an Individualized health plan. Create bullet points and describe each point on asthma. The first section should be 10-12 key points and description of each point of these asthma action plan and an Individualized health plan. Then second section should be 25 key points and description of each of the points to be used to train teachers about their students with asthma.

2.            You have several epinephrine pens in your office for children with severe allergies. Discuss how you would collaborate with the head of nutrition in your school district to keep these students safe? Create bullet points and describe each point on allergies. The first section would be to discuss 10-12 key points with description of each of the points of how to collaborate with the nutrition department (school kitchen and dining services). Then second section here would be 25 key points and description of each point to be used to teach the bus drivers how to use an epinephrine pen.

3.            As a closing element, discuss the importance of collaboration for these two conditions.

Feel free to use other resources for your teachings and explanations, such as YouTube, in your teaching.

Assignment Expectations – Paper requires introduction & Conclusion paragraphs. Each valid Point used in answering must be cited IN an (IN-TEXT CITATION APA 7 FORMAT)

Length: 1500 – 2000 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions in a clear, concise manner.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include at least eight (8) scholarly sources to support your claims.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)

GRADING RUBRIC

This table lists criteria and criteria group name in the first column. The first row lists level names and includes scores if the rubric uses a numeric scoring method. Criteria

Does Not Meet 0%

Approaches 70%

Meets 80%

Exceeds 100%

Criterion Score

Content Weight: 30%

0 points

Topic is inappropriate to assignment, inaccurate understanding of concepts, unclear and difficult to understand; does not address many assignment requirements. Information has weak or no connection to the assignment topic.

21 points

Topic is mostly covered and appropriate to assignment, but does not adequately demonstrate accurate understanding of concepts; mostly clear and understandable; lacks some of the requirements of the assignment description and/or provides little detail; Information relates to the main topic, but few details and/or examples are given.

24 points

Topic is covered completely and appropriate to assignment; overview of key concept dimensions is evident; clear and understandable; addresses all of the requirements of the assignment description, with adequate attention to detail.

30 points

In-depth coverage of topic; outstanding clarity and explanation of concepts demonstrated in information presented; approaches assignment with depth and breadth, without redundancy, using clear and focused details.

Score of Content Weight: 30%,/ 30

Organization Weight: 25%

0 points

Organization is confusing and interferes with reader’s ability to follow ideas.  Weak or no introduction of topic or purpose is unclear, weak, or missing. Conclusion lacks a summary of topic, or is missing or irrelevant.

17.5 points

Ideas are sometimes disorganized or irrelevant; Flow is sometimes choppy; somewhat clear organization. Basic introduction that states topic but is presented in an uninteresting way. Conclusion contains basic summary of topic without final concluding ideas, may inappropriately introduces new information.

20 points

Structures ideas in a coherent, organized order that has good flow and an obvious framework.  Proficient introduction that is interesting and states topic.  Conclusion contains good summary of topic with credible concluding ideas and introduces no new information.

25 points

Exceptionally clear, logical, mature, and thorough organization permitting smooth flow of ideas; Introduction that grabs interest of reader and states topic in clear, unambiguous terms.  Excellent concluding summary with succinct and precise ideas that impact reader.

Score of Organization Weight: 25%,/ 25

Logic/Argument Weight: 15%

0 points

Demonstrates little logical reasoning for the claims and thoughts within assignment; Many claims are weak or illogical.

10.5 points

Lacks some logical reasoning for the claims and thoughts within the assignment; Some claims are weak.

12 points

Uses solid logical reasoning for the claims and thoughts within the assignment.

15 points

Provides exemplary logical reasoning for the claims and thoughts within the assignment.

Score of Logic/Argument Weight: 15%,/ 15

Support Weight: 20%

0 points

Lacks support; Uses poor sources for references; Citations lack credibility, relevance, or academic quality or are not current; Does not meet the minimum number of required citations in assignment description.  APA format and style are not evident.

14 points

Provides weak support or not enough support; Citations are not consistently credible, current, relevant or academic; Meets the minimum number of required citations in assignment description   Missing APA elements; in-text citations, where necessary, are used but formatted inaccurately and not referenced.

16 points

Provides sufficient support with credible, current, relevant academic citations; Meets the minimum number of required citations in assignment description. ; In-text citations and a reference page are present with few format errors. Mechanics of writing are reflective of APA style.

20 points

Provides very strong support from credible, current, relevant, academic citations; Meets or exceeds the minimum number of required citations in assignment description.  Accurate citations and references are presented. No APA errors are evident.

Score of Support Weight: 20%,/ 20

Quality of Written Communication Weight: 10%

0 points

Style and voice inappropriate or do not address given audience, purpose, etc. Word choice is excessively redundant, clichéd, and unspecific. Inconsistent grammar, spelling, punctuation, and paragraphing. Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

7 points

Style and voice are somewhat appropriate to given audience and purpose. Word choice is often unspecific, generic, redundant, and clichéd. Repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language, sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.

8 points

Style and voice are appropriate to the given audience and purpose. Word choice is specific and purposeful, and somewhat varied throughout. Minimal mechanical or typographical errors are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

10 points

Style and voice are not only appropriate to the given audience and purpose, but also show originality and creativity. Word choice is specific, purposeful, dynamic and varied. Free of mechanical and typographical errors. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Score of Quality of Written Communication Weight: 10%,/ 10

Rubric Total ScoreTotal

/ 100

Overall Score

Overall Score

Level 10 points minimum

Level 270 points minimum

Level 380 points minimum

Level 4100 points minimum

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Asthma and Allergies Care For School Children

Asthma is a long-term inflammatory disease that affects the lungs. Its symptoms include wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath and are caused by genetics and environmental factors like air pollution (Cockcroft, 2018). The asthma action plan focuses on preventing the hypersensitivity reaction, maintaining airway patency, and preventing the occurrence of reversible complications. McDowell & Thomas (2007) defined allergies as conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune systems to handle substances in the environment typically. They include allergic asthma and food allergies. This paper seeks to address some issues on asthma care and allergy care among school children.

Section one                                  

The Differences between Asthma Action Plan and Individualized Health Plan;

  • An Asthma action plan entails some decisions and procedures that are put in place to prevent hypersensitivity reactions and also to prevent the occurrence of reversible complications like shortness of breath. According to Karsting, K. (2012). Individualized health care (IHP) is a plan of care written by registered nurses for students at the risk of physical or mental health needs. These risks could include depression, stress for the mental illnesses and asthma, allergies for the physical illnesses.
  • The asthma action plan provides some instructions and information on the nature and treatment of the disease. It includes some medications, guidelines on handling the complications, and what to do in cases of emergencies. The IHP helps in passing information to the nurses to promote continued care to the student, to ensure proper progress through the school system. That is for those students with asthma; they receive proper care from the nurses in school that includes frequent checkups.
  • An asthma action plan helps inform the teachers, the school nurse, or any other caregiver in the institution about the student’s state. This helps the school fraternity in knowing how to handle this kind of student. For example, they are excluded from crowded areas, and they are offered free checkups. IHP helps the student as an individual to know the particular precautions based on the health status.
  • Another difference is that the asthma action plan includes details about what triggers the attack and the specific names of medicines used in treatment. For example, some things that trigger asthma include dust, crowded places. The IHP documents the nursing process for this particular emergency. It provides a guide on how to administer medication.
  • The asthma action plan seeks to inform the caregivers on the measurements that indicate worsening of the asthma attack, according to Yanagisiwa & Ichinose (2018). The IHP helps to prompt responses to asthma emergencies.
  • The Asthma Attack Plan (AAP) provides telephone numbers and addresses of the hospital that the patient visits in case of an emergency. At the same time, the IHP guides the care and coordination of the students. In this, the emergency response can be conducted on the school premises.
  • An Asthma action plan includes a peak flow rate that helps monitor the asthmatic attack before the symptoms are visible. In contrast, an individualized health plan outlines the relevant knowledge needed by the caregivers to ensure they are aware of the asthmatics attacks symptoms and prescriptions.
  • AAP ensures that the students who have asthmatic attacks take their daily dosage appropriately. In case of emergency, the management should contact the medical team, while for IHP, the student has the nurses’ prescriptions; hence, it is easy to handle asthmatic attacks.
  • The AAP advocates for some measures to avoid the attacks from getting severe. It provides some actions based on maintenance and prevention of asthma, while IHP contains some plans on responding to the attacks, like using an inhaler.
  • AAP includes a list of instructions on what to do when asthma worsens, while IHP includes instructions on what the caregivers should do to avoid frequent attacks or even the attacks getting worse.

Section two

Guidelines for teachers on how to handle students with asthma.

  • Teachers should be educated more about the disease; that is, they should empower them with more important information to be always informed of the changes that will occur in their day-to-day lives.
  • Teachers are to take proper precautions for asthmatic students while positioning them in class to avoid positioning them in crowded areas or even dusty areas.
  • Also, the teachers are to reduce some causative agents of asthma-like dust by ensuring classrooms are cleaned daily and spacious.
  • Thoroughly educate the teachers more on asthma action plans to handle the asthmatic students around them effectively.
  • The teachers should collaborate with the nurses to get more informed on how to handle students with asthmatic attacks.
  • Teachers also collaborate with the patients, physicians, and parents for proper communication in an asthmatic attack.
  • Teachers should educate their students on asthmatic attacks and their precautions to avoid other students discriminating the others.
  • Ensuring that the teachers are included in making the school medication policy so that the guidelines are set to handle students with the illnesses.
  • Educating the teachers about the chemicals and some volatile materials with irritating fumes can cause an asthmatic attack.
  • Teachers are also encouraged to have closer supervision on asthmatic students as they are doing their physical activities. They shouldn’t involve themselves with strain’s exercise.
  • A workshop should be organized to help the teachers gain more experience in handling the ailing students without dehumanizing them.
  • The teachers should know the side effects of asthma medications and how they will affect their performance.
  • Some counseling sessions may be done for these students to give them hope and morale.
  • The teacher should ensure regular checkups for the student s so that they cannot lack someone to help them when they are attacked.
  • The teachers should be trained on how to do forecasts and alerts for air quality and environmental issues to help them plan for outdoor activities.
  • The asthma symptoms should be made known to the teachers so that they can know early signs of asthma among the students.
  • Teachers are to be trained on handling this student regarding missed assignments and classes; that is how to help them compensate for what they haven’t learned.
  • The teachers should make sure that the asthmatic students have their asthmatic action plan.
  • Teachers should enhance a good learning environment for all regardless of their situations.
  • Also, the teachers can assess the reading habits of these students to know the various challenges they are facing, and they can be of help to them.
  • The teachers should ensure collaboration with the students to help reduce exposure to asthmatic triggers.
  • The teachers are to be educated on community support issues whereby they will get support about asthmatic precautions from the community people.
  • Teachers are to advocate for policy change that will promote the health welfare of the students.
  • Developing asthma management plan that includes asthmatic procedures that are the use of inhalers and proper medication.
  • Teachers are to show compassion and empathy to the students that is encourage them rather than discouraging them.

Section one

Collaboration with the nutrition department

  • The school kitchen and dining services seek to collaborate with the nutrition department to ensure safety for the school children.
  • Through collaboration, the school will be educated more on health issues that will help in reducing the risk of chronic diseases like asthma.
  • The kitchen service shall know the various diets to cook for the students to reduce allergic reactions.
  • Collaboration with the nutrition department seeks to help the school be more informed on matters of allergy treatment through proper nutrition.
  • Also, the issue of hygiene hypothesis makes allergies reduce at a very high rate. 
  • The nutrition department educated the school on the need to eat foods rich in vitamin C since those foods are the treatment for allergies like oranges.
  • Apart from eating a healthy diet, the nutrition department advocated for regular exercising of the body. This will help in the burning of excess fats in the body that may result in some allergies.
  • Venter et al. (2017) state that eliminating some diets helps reduce rates of allergies. The nutrition department advocated for a balanced diet that promotes health in children and adults.
  • D’Auria et al., (2020) the liberalization of the diet when appropriate and safe increases the quality of life through eliminating some allergens in the body. The nutritionist advocated for this to reduce allergies.
  • Through collaboration, the nutritionist advised the school to fit in fume chimneys around the school to reduce allergies caused by fumigants like asthma.

Section two

How to use epinephrine pen

Epinephrine is a medical device for injecting a measured dose of adrenaline through auto-injector technology (Brown, J.C et al., 2020). The driver has to know these points for him to be able to use this pen.

  • The bus driver shall go through some training on how to use the pen. Some demos will be shown to ensure proper understanding.
  • The school can ensure that it has a nurse moving in and out with the driver to ensure safety for the students.
  • After various encounters with how the nurse deals with these school children, the driver will some the basics and later do the same independently.
  • The driver is educated on the various places where this pen can be used, like a sting or a serious allergic reaction.
  • Advising the driver to read the patient information manually before using the pen.
  • For the pen, the driver should consult the doctor or the child’s caregiver in case of any question.
  • When the pen has the blue safety release not raised and is difficult to remove from its case, the driver shouldn’t use it.
  • The driver may administer the injection while the child is lying down or sitting.
  • Also, the driver may need to be taught the various signs to watch out for to administer the injection.
  • The driver has to be given a list of the children with various allergic reactions for close supervision.
  • Proper treatment of all the students should be ensured and not discriminating those that are sick.
  • A workshop may work best to enhance the understanding of the use of this pen for the driver and the other personnel in the transport sector.
  • Also, the driver may use the search engines to get more formation on epinephrine pen and what illnesses it treats.
  • They can be trained through video conferencing or online platforms through virtual reality videos.
  • The drivers may also be trained by been given some assignments on allergic reactions, and they state ways through which they can be treated or diagnosed.
  • The intervention of a doctor will help in easier demonstrations and more understanding of epinephrine.
  • Open discussions with the caregivers will help them understand some strategies on how to handle the patient.
  • Also, some discussions with the patient help the driver know some symptoms or signs to look for in an attack.
  • The driver has to maintain proper hygiene in the bus to avoid reactions or asthmatic attacks.
  • The epinephrine pen injection should be given in the middle of the outer side thigh.
  • If the injection doesn’t respond effectively, the driver should repeat this after five to fifteen minutes.
  • The driver has to make sure he has some emergency numbers in case of a severe emergency.
  • Also, encouraging them to collaborate with the community people to get more knowledge on allergies and asthmatic attacks from experiences by people.
  • The driver also has to understand the asthmatic action plan and know how to avoid administering the wrong medication.
  • For effective usage of the epinephrine pen, the driver must be properly trained not to administer the medication wrongly.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the collaboration of asthmatic care and allergy care has improved health conditions among school children. According to Lakupoch et al. (2018), through the generation of an action plan, some measures to handle the attacks, reduce the severity have been put in place, and offer medication have been implemented. When they are well tackled, these two conditions enable the school children to learn effectively without any inconveniences unless a severe emergency requires a proper checkup. Maintaining a proper nutrition diet, having regular medical checkups in case of any allergic sign, doing some regular exercises, ensuring proper hygiene measures reduce chances of allergic reactions like asthmatic attacks. When school children are free from illnesses, it becomes easier for them to learn effectively.

References

Brown, J. C., Simons, E., & Rudders, S. A. (2020). Epinephrine in the Management of Anaphylaxis. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice8(4), 1186-1195.

Cockcroft, D. W. (2018, February). Environmental causes of asthma. In Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine (Vol. 39, No. 01, pp. 012-018). Thieme Medical Publishers.

D’Auria, E., Pendezza, E., & Zuccotti, G. V. (2020). Personalized nutrition in food allergy: Tips for clinical practice. Frontiers in pediatrics8.

Karsting, K. (2012). How can individualized healthcare plans be used most effectively? NASN School Nurse27(4), 189-191.

Lakupoch, K., Manuyakorn, W., Preutthipan, A., & Kamalaporn, H. (2018). The effectiveness of newly developed written asthma action plan in improvement of asthma outcome in children. Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology36(2), 88-92.

McConnell, Thomas H. (2007). The nature of disease; pathology for the health professionals. Baltimore, MD; Lippincott Williams& Wilkins. P. 159. ISBN 978-0-7817-5317-3

Venter, C., Mazzocchi, A., Maslin, K., & Agostoni, C. (2017). Impact of elimination diets on Nutrition and growth in children with multiple food allergies. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology17(3), 220-226.

Yanagisawa, S., & Ichinose, M. (2018). Definition and diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). Allergology International67(2), 172-178.