Module 3: The Development of the Preschool, School-Aged, and Adolescent Student and Cultural Considerations for the School Nurse

(All papers must have INTRODUCTION & CONCLUSION. Use the uploaded Grading Rubric to write the paper)

This first discussion assignment is intended to help each student set a context for the course, establish expectations and goals for the course, and provide insights to the instructor enabling tailoring of the course to better fit the needs of the students. Replies to discussion questions must be well considered and scholarly. A quality initial response to the Discussion Question should be roughly 400 words. (Selected Journal article MUST not be more that 5 years old)

Learning Materials

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 13,14,15

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2020). The Growing Child: Preschool (4-5 Years)

Discussion Question: 500 WORDS

Discussion Question 1: Choose one of the following prompts:

Review the website Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2020). The Growing Child: Preschool (4-5 Years)

Go to the three areas: Preschool, School-Aged, and Adolescent. Pick one of the areas and discuss, in 500 words, as if preparing a refresher paper for teachers on their students’ development.


In chapter 15, Selekman discusses selected cultural groups. (p 429 – 434). In 500 words, discuss each culture and give an overview of the health beliefs and School Nurse implications for each culture. You will have five cultures in your discussion.



            A diagnostic adaptive assessment exercise is essential to evaluate child development in terms of physical, social, language and speech, thought, emotional, cognitive, gross motor, and fine motor changes. Tracking children’s development across all stages of child development ensures minors’ needs are met. This paper aims to assess development in growing child especially those in preschool. 

            A preschooler exhibits development in basic life skills and independence as they prepare to join the elementary school. Children between 3-4 years encounter many emotional expressions. As they grow old, they learn how to express their emotions. Children’s development is seen when talking, playing, and using gestures. A child between 3-5 years would like to emulate his/her preschool-age friends. Expressly, preschoolers want to be around people or act in a particular way to please their friends (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.). Since they want to get along with their peers, some will learn courtesy, comply with rules and feel happy when good things happen to others. As part of growth, preschoolers can either be demanding and cooperative. Children start to have few temper tantrums and gain control over their emotions as they approach five years old. Preschoolers are exhibit anxiety in their early days in school. Children between 3 to 5 years develop the tendency of hiding the truth purposely to avoid punishment. They use the phrase “I did not do it, or I do not know” to evade criticism or punishment.

            Preschoolers play through acts, dancing, and singing. During this development period, children are aware of their gender (Fast & Olson, 2018). They grow curious about their bodies and start playing gender-based games. However, these children can play different roles. Therefore, natural curiosity and role-playing start in preschool. Children between 4 to 5 years start conversations and telling stories. During this development period, they can express their feelings. Their sentence structure and thinking capacity improve. They can remember their names and order of numbers. Kids between 3 to 5 years might start to dress and feed themselves. Preschoolers get better in their movements. They become more mobile and active. Gross motor skills such as jumping, running, skipping kicking a ball, and hopping increase gradually (Raising Children Network, n.d.). One can explore their precision by assessing their fine motor skills. They can write their name, draw objects and use a pair of scissors to cut papers.

            Teachers can develop preschoolers’ growth by giving them lots of playtimes, acting with peers, and engaging in imaginative or creative plays. These activities allow children to express their feelings, gain skills, think, imagine and learn how to talk (Raising Children Network, n.d.). Educators can play games with children or involve them in a cooking exercise. Educators are of great importance in developing preschoolers’ skills because they grow and develop speeds vary. Teachers should involve child health professionals for better development outcomes. 

            In summation, the basic life skills and independence of expressions/ emotions start in preschools. During this period, they can play with their peers, converse and interact with others. Both gross and fine motor skills develop in preschool. However, since development varies among children, educators and child health professionals can help grow their skills and abilities.


Fast, A. A., & Olson, K. R. (2018). Gender development in transgender preschool children. Child development89(2), 620-637.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. The Growing Child: Preschool (4 to 5 Years).

Raising Children Network. 4-5 years: preschooler development. Raising Children Network.