Module 5: Assignment

Assignment:

Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework. Each paragraph must have at least 2-3 in-text APA citation from the References list.

Learning Materials

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 8,11,27 and 28

National Fragile X Foundation. 

Williams Syndrome Association.  

Facts about Down Syndrome | CDC. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Fetal alcohol syndrome – Symptoms and causes. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic.

University of Maryland School of Medicine. (2020). National Center for School Mental Health. National Center for School Mental Health. 

Start by reading and following these instructions:

  1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.
  2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.
  3. Consider the course discussions so far and any insights gained from it.
  4. Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources if needed, use APA style as required, and check your spelling.

Assignment:

In an essay of 1500 to 2000 words, using at least 2 APA style cited references, write an essay in APA style on:

Select two of the four conditions listed below. Using the textbook and the website provided, write a paper discussing the disorder’s incidence, what type of disabilities are associated with the condition, and any associated findings. Then discuss what a School Nurse would need to know to care for this student. What teaching would need to be done by the school staff? Which accommodations would need to be given for the student? Would the student need medications? Special therapy at school? Discuss any legal considerations for school health. Describe support groups in your community that you would recommend to the family?

  1.  
    1. Down syndrome
    2. Fragile X syndrome
    3. Fetal Alcohol syndrome
    4. William’s syndrome

Review the selected mental health conditions in chapter 28. Pick two. Using the textbook and one other scholarly article, describe the condition, how it is characterized, and what a school health professional would need to know to care for a student. List one individual for each condition that you could collaborate with to help the student. 

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500-2000 words; 

Structure: Include a title page and reference page (if needed) in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)

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Introduction

            This paper aims to discuss Down syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome in students. it discusses disabilities and conditions associated with the two conditions. It describes the role of school nurses and teaching staff in meeting the needs of the patient students. the study identifies legal considerations and recommendations that influence and can improve the health status of patient students respectively.

Down syndrome

           Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is common in babies. Even though the condition is influenced by genetics, it is not hereditary. Old mothers are likely to give birth to babies with Down syndrome than young mothers. Women from different races and social-economic status can give birth to infants with Down syndrome. The incidence of Down syndrome increases as the mother’s age increases. Most of the babies born with Down syndrome have low birth weight. The mortality rate of infants with Down syndrome is highest in African babies compared to white infants.

Disabilities associated with Down syndrome

           Down syndrome is linked to intellectual disability and sensory impairments (Wester et al., 2019). Hypotonia, cognitive delays and a characteristic facial appearance (tongue sticking outside the mouth, short neck, corners of the eyes pointing upward and small ear). Other defects include digestive abnormalities, a single crease on the palms, small hands and feet. Other complications associated with Down syndrome include gastroesophageal reflux, Alzheimer disease, celiac disease, hypothyroidism, hearing problems, vision problems, autism spectrum disorders, cancer, delayed development, cognitive problems, delayed speech and language development, compulsive behaviour, attention problems. People with Down syndrome are susceptible to depression, dementia, diabetes, congenital heart disease, leukemia, obesity, sleep apnea, immune disorders, spinal problems,epilepsy, coeliac disease, gum disease and dental problems (Mayo Clinic. n.d.).

What a School Nurse should know when caring for a student with Down syndrome

The school nurse should have detailed health status information of the students with Down syndrome. Regarding the physical information should know particulars in the abnormal ophthalmologic examination. To offer quality and appropriate care for a student with Down syndrome, the nurse should reckon that the student has impaired learning and decreased intelligence quotient (Mayo Clinic, n.d.).It is imperative to know the severity of the condition to settle on the most appropriate intervention. Similarly, the school nurse should know the rhythms in impulsive behaviour, attention, poor judgement. The nurse should know the degree of frustration and anger in the patient. The health provider should have a summary of the medical conditions that need specialized care. These conditions include but not limited to dementia, impaired motor skills, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, cataracts, hypothyroidism, impaired hearing, amongst others.

Teaching needed by the Down syndrome student

              The student with Down syndrome deserves education to ensure s/he reaches his/her full potential. Special healthcare needs go in hand with special education. School staff should implement an individualized health plan to provide education to a student with Down syndrome. Teaching staff should use visual demonstrations, illustrations and pictures to teach the student with visual learning impairments. Students with Down syndrome should get teaching on phonological awareness and phonics. Teachers can capitalize on student’s social skills to heighten learning and teaching opportunities (Bull, 2020). Manipulatives, tactile demonstration, structure learning, speaking directly to students, activity learning and allowing students to process language or text can be employed in teaching. During the teaching exercise, the patient with Down syndrome should be allowed to sit in the front of the classroom with their hearing aids on. When asking a question or giving instruction, the educator should cue the student’s name. New concepts should be pre-taught in a quiet environment.

Accommodations to given a Down syndrome student

           Down syndrome, patient should not be treated as an inferior individual. Same expectations should be placed on him/her.  The student should be involved in all school activities to express self. Teachers should tolerate students who less attentive and stubborn (Bull, 2020). Accommodation for students with Down syndrome involves allowing children to take risks and make their own choices. Students should be supported in decision making instead of solving the problems on their behalf.Get teacher buy-in and demystifying the student are methods of accommodating children with Down syndrome despite their inabilities. The curriculum can be modified to involve real-life connections.

Medication for Down syndrome

The school nurse should help in the administration of medicine. A combination of phosphate 30 mg and acetaminophen 300 mg should be prescribed for Down syndrome. 

Special therapy at school

           The school nurse should at the forefront to offer special therapy for the Down syndrome student. The therapy would involve physical therapy, speech-language therapy and occupational therapy. Physical therapy would focus on correcting posture, improving body balance, strengthening and toning muscles. The school nurse would implement speech-language therapy by centering on cognitive skills, articulation, communication and toning both tongue and lips muscles. Occupational therapy would help enhance the fine motor skills of the patient.

Legal consideration

           State laws oblige healthcare practitioners to give detailed information to expectant women with positive prenatal results for Down syndrome and mothers who give birth to infants with Down syndrome. Like in any other population, students with Down syndrome are eligible for equal and quality care. Down syndrome patients should be accommodated with their impairments.

Support groups in the community

           I would recommend the Down Syndrome Association of Connecticut, Connecticut Down syndrome Congress, 21 Strong and Lighthouse Voc-Ed Center to help the family. The four organizations would help the family understand the importance of inclusion, promoting equity, and empowering patients with Down syndrome and their parents.

Fetal Alcohol syndrome

           According to a CDC report, there is approximately one child born with fetal alcohol syndrome in every 1000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). An increase in binge drinking contributes to an increase in fetal alcohol syndrome cases. The FAS rate in black Americans is higher than that in Caucasians. The incidence of FAS is relatively high in drinking women aged 28 years old. The fatality rate for fetal alcohol syndrome stands at about 12 per cent.

Disabilities associated with fetal alcohol syndrome

           Fetal alcohol syndrome leads to intellectual disability, hearing problems, memory problems, imparted vision, attention span, organ failure, poorly developed bones, limbs and fingers (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Other conditions associated with fetal alcohol disorder are conduct disorder, adult deficit hyperactivity disorder,neurobehavioral disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder and social behavioural deficits. 

What a School Nurse should know when caring for a student with fetal alcohol syndrome

           The school nurse should know about the syndrome major criteria. S/he should be acquainted with the student’s facial malformations, behaviour, nervous abnormalities, and growth retardation details (Rozensztrauch et al., 2018). The nurse should be able to assess the student physical appearance, physical growth, brain growth and development. The nurse should find social and behavioural problems, health concerns, monitor language development difficulties and cognitive ability.

Teaching needed by fetal alcohol syndrome students

           The teaching staff should first recognize and understand that the student has sustained neurological damage. Educators should apply the “think younger” model to teach a student with fetal alcohol syndrome. The teaching method should capitalize student’s strengths to support his educational needs (Baes, 2020). Also, the teaching staff should ensure the learning environment is improvised to accommodate the student’s unique needs. The student should be taught through a brief presentation, illustrations and all concepts should be repeated. Educators should use visual and auditory cues, create designed group activities, and use concrete and simplified language, 

Accommodating a Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Student

           School nurses and educators should first acknowledge that the student has a neurobehavioral condition but can learn. The student should be treated with compassion. Educators should be in a position to recognize the student’s limitations and functioning difficulties (Baes, 2020). A team approach would accommodate the complex needs of the student. Educators should acknowledge the student’s talent and allow him to make own decisions. The most imperative thing about teaching a fetal alcohol syndrome student is to repeat lessons, syllabus or course.

Medication for fetal alcohol syndrome

           There is no approved medication for fetal alcohol syndrome. Nevertheless, the severity of symptoms such as lack of focus, depression, hyperactive behaviour,difficulty with attention and poor memory.

Special therapy at school

           Relaxation therapy, biofeedback, auditory training and use of visual imagery can be implemented in school to manage FASD. 

Legal considerations for school health

School health for students with fetal alcohol syndrome is influenced by generic educational policies FASD policies and special education policy. Care and education for students with fetal alcohol syndrome are compulsory (Hamilton et al., 2020). The law mandate schools to ensure they meet FASD care needs and special learning needs. The philosophy of accommodation and inclusion should be implemented. Students with FASD should feel recognized and accepted in the learning institutions.

Support groups to recommend to the family

           I would recommend Connecticut Family Support Network and Alcoholics Anonymous to support the family. The two groups would help the family improve social competence, change FASD perceptions, increase self-esteem and promote healthy behaviour. The support groups would offer the affected family an opportunity to share their experiences and feelings about the fetal alcoholic syndrome. Through the groups, the family can learn coping strategies and how to administer therapy.

Conclusion

           Both fetal alcohol syndrome and Down syndrome are common in children. Down syndrome in children is majorly influenced by age of the mother. Fetal alcoholic syndrome in infants is influenced by binge drinking in young women. Students with either of the conditions should be provided with quality care. Accommodation for students with DW or FASD is based on their abilities. A suitable teaching model and a modified learning process should be devised to help in teaching DW and FASD students.

References

Baes, A. (2020). Setting up for success: a qualitative study on teachers of students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, Massey University). https://mro.massey.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/15917/BAESMScThesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Bull, M. J. (2020). Down syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine382(24), 2344-2352. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1706537

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data & Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/data.html#:~:text=Using%20medical%20and%20other%20records,areas%20of%20the%20United%20States.&text=The%20most%20recent%20CDC%20study,to%209%20years%20of%20age.

Centers for Disease Control And Prevention. Data and Statistics on Down syndrome | CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome/data.html#:~:text=Down%20syndrome%20continues%20to%20be,in%20every%20700%20babies%20born.

Hamilton, S., Reibel, T., Maslen, S., Watkins, R., Jacinta, F., Passmore, H., & Bower, C. (2020). Disability “In-Justice”: The benefits and challenges of “Yarning” with young people undergoing diagnostic assessment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a youth detention center. Qualitative health research30(2), 314-327. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732319882910

Mayo Clinic. Down syndrome – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355977

Mayo Clinic. Fetal alcohol syndrome – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fetal-alcohol-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20352901.

Wester Oxelgren, U., Myrelid, Å., Annerén, G., Westerlund, J., Gustafsson, J., & Fernell, E. (2019). More severe intellectual disability found in teenagers compared to younger children with Down syndrome. Acta Paediatrica108(5), 961-966. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.14624