Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework. Each paragraph must have at least 2-3 in-text APA citation from the References list.


School nurses work with students of all ages, from preschool age through adolescence. In this module, we will discuss the preschool, school-aged, and adolescent groups to review their normal development. Cultural competence is important in all areas of nursing. Depending on the area of practice, there are specific cultural considerations. This is the case for the school health professional as well. It is important to understand these considerations for many cultures, as we will discuss this week.

Goals Alignment

University Mission-Based Outcomes – 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Program Learning Goals – 1, 4, 8, 9

Course Learning Objectives – 5, 6, 7, 9

A picture containing textDescription automatically generated Learning Materials

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 13,14,15

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2020). The Growing Child: Preschool (4-5 Years)https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/the-growing-child-preschool-4-to-5-years


In an essay of 1500 to 2000 words, using at least 2 APA style cited references, write an essay in APA style on:

As a School Nurse, you will be asked to deliver culturally competent, developmentally appropriate care to children of all ages. Take the issue of the ability to identify the need for an asthma inhaler (self-assessment), and then the ability to use the inhaler. Start with preschool and go through 12th grade. Describe the developmental basics of the age and apply them to their ability to recognize the need for the inhaler and use it independently. Create a chart, a PowerPoint, a Prezi, or a paper with this information, ensuring the information’s clarity. Discuss the laws around the independent use of the inhaler in your state. ( MY STATE IS CONNECTICUT- You must Do your research on use of inhaler in schools for State of Connecticut in the United Sstate)

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500-2000 words;

Structure: Include a title page and reference page (if needed) in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)



            Development in children is gradual as they grow from preschool towards the 12th grade. They grow they can cognize and learn to apply certain healthcare support systems and initiatives to improve their wellbeing and also live healthy lifes. A school nurse is obliged to offer culturally, competent, developmentally and appropriate care to children of all ages. Connecticut like any other American state has laws that protect student rights. The laws cover children who possess, carry and use prescribed asthma inhalers Justia (US Law .n.d.).Connecticut State Department of Public Health ensures the state laws align with the Asthmatic School children’s Treatment and Health Management Act amongst other federal laws that control the use of inhalers in school, students self-administration asthma inhalers, possession and carrying of inhalers in learning institutions. Connecticut laws cite that the school nurse should identify children with respiratory conditions and implement the appropriate treatment plan (Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America .n.d.). The objective of this essay is to present school nurse and Connecticut state law influences on inhaler administration in children and adolescents. it also focuses on the developmental aspects of children as they grow from preschool to the 12 grade. The study uses defined concepts to evaluate student’s ability to ponder on an asthma inhaler, and their ability to use it effectively without help. Also, it spells out laws that influence the independent use of the inhalers in children; these laws ensure the protection of patients’ rights during inhaler use.

Asthma in Various Stages of Development

           There are various remedies for asthma; an asthma inhaler is one of the devices that are used to counter breathing problems that can lead to adverse complications. At first, the airways a narrow and swell causing difficulty in breathing, excess mucus occupies the airways. As a result, the victim will produce a wheezing sound as s/he is breathing, may cough occasionally. The asthma inhaler is apposite to address shortness of breath. When children assent to use inhalers and follow the instructions given, they will recover from the illness.

Preschool Level

           Children between 3 to 4 years old are considered preschoolers. A child aged 3 years old can follow instructions with a maximum of two directives. A three-year-old is wise enough to integrate basic health practices as teeth brushing and hand washing. However, the child cannot perform the exercise on their own; they need assistance from their guardians, carers or parents. The level of participation in preschoolers is relatively high because they can play with their peers. Perhaps, due to their tender age, they might cognize the need for an asthma inhaler. Instead, they are fascinated by toys and devices that can use in plays and exercises. Also, they do not know how to use an inhaler. For that reason, a school nurse should direct more focus on preschoolers aged 3 years, perform intense screening exercises to evaluate their health and apply the right asthma interventions (Connecticut Children’s, n.d.).

           A 4-year-old child starts to get interested to study his environment and event happening around. Such kids are fascinated by impartiality and equity. They believe that they should be rewarded or recognised for good needs and reprimanded for their unwelcoming behaviour, parents and carers have a role to play in nurturing 4-year-olds by informing them on good and wrong acts (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2020). At this age of development, the school nurse can present the asthma inhaler with reassuring information to persuade children. Since their communication skills are taking shape, they will be determined to learn more about the inhaler. They will want to know what an inhaler is, what its purpose is and when it should be used. A four-year child is ecstatic after performing undertakings such as correctly positioning and using the inhaler.

            A five-year-old child has acclimatized self to new skills. S/he actively participates in a conversation and shares his feelings or experiences (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2020). Connecticut State Department of Public Health backs programs that improve efficiency and effectiveness in delivering care in preschool (Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America n.d.). Through laws, the federal government has initiated systems and procedures that will address preschooler’s needs. A five-year-old child knows that covering mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing is very important. During this period, children can abide by simple rules that ensure safety. Obeying simple safety rules is a clear indication that a child can follow inhaler instructions given by the school nurse (Selekman & Shannon, 2019). However, the school care professional should ensure the asthmatic five-year-old used the inhaler at the prescribed/ recommended time.

School-aged Children

            Children between six and twelve years old are considered school-aged children. With proper direction and skills they can use asthmatic inhalers (Connecticutchildrens.org, n.d.).  Their sporting activities are more organized. Consistent with the Individualized School Health Care Plan, a school nurse should evaluate both the parent and patient to ascertain the severity of asthma. The analysis will determine the health status for appropriate interventions to be applied. During this process, it is easy to address students’ health care needs. The school nurse can identify conditions that worsen asthmatic symptoms in students. With the individualized School Health Care Plan, disaster preparedness interventions and emergency procedures will be developed. The school nurse can use the individualized School Health Care Plan to assign the appropriate number of care practitioners to address asthma in school-aged students (Selekman & Shannon, 2019). A child added between 7 and 9 years is in a position to determine his or her gender. Also, they have trivial skills in time management. These children can identify changes in their health and inform the school nurse without assistance. They can identify close friends from those whom they meet occasionally. When a child is diagnosed with asthma, the school nurse should closely follow up on the child and offer support. Since these children can forget, the school nurse has to remind or confirm whether they used the inhaler.

           When a child hits 9 years, s/he understands inferences or readings. Hence, s/he is aware of his/her health status. Children aged 9 years old, can apply safety measure without being forced. Similarly, children with asthma can use an inhaler, follow instructions carefully on their own and liaise with the school nurse. Children aged 10 and 11 are more developed because the conversation tone adapts with the environment they find themselves in. They consider perceptions when interacting with other people. Since they prefer simple intervention measures, the school nurse should manage their asthma conditions for improved outcomes. a school nurse should assess whether a student is able to possess a device such as an asthma inhaler.A School-aged Child who can individually observe safety measures and maintain privacy/confidentiality can self-administer asthma interventions such as the use of an asthma inhaler (Connecticutchildrens.org, n.d.). The self-administering process should be formalized between the school nurse, parent and the student for easy coordination, assessment of results during asthma inhalers use, when a child surpasses 12 years old, his/her development is advanced because s/he learns to do things independently.13-year-old children have to show interests in certain things or processes. As a result, the children choose whom they want to be attached to and built relationships. During this period, the school nurse intervenes by using the agreement to ensure the child employees the appropriate practice or procedures (McCabe et al., 2019). The agreement should mention the effects of incorrectly administering the asthma inhaler. During this period, the self-administration recommendation can be stripped if the asthma patient is sharing the device with friends.

Students at the 12th Grade

           Primarily adolescence starts at 14 years old. Children in 12th-grade experience growth spurts and emotional changes. As they undergo rapid development. More skills are acquired while in the 12th grade. At 14 years old, the children make their own decisions and execute tasks with or without supervision (Taylor et al., 2017). However, they are susceptible to peer pressure that might their wellness and health status. They can be exposed to smoking which is one of the asthma risk factors. Once they reach 17 years old, they are mature enough to use the necessary devices to help with medication. At 12th grade, they should be consulted before recommending a medical intervention (Taylor et al., 2017). They also need training and supervision for correct use and adherence to the asthma inhaler. The school nurse cannot control teenagers alone, hence needing the support of teachers. The two professionals should ensure the students follow the given instruction and portray appropriate behaviours. The school nurse should indoctrinate educators and students on how to identify asthma symptoms and apply apposite interventions to protect and care for asthma (Szefler, 2019). The teacher can also keep a copy of the individualized School Health Care Plan and engage the school nurse, parents and student patient to improved asthma outcomes. When students are involved and rectified they behave responsibly and follow the asthma inhaler guidelines. School nurses should lobby for an emergency protocol for urgent intervention especially for students who use asthma inhalers independently (Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America n.d.). Disabled students should not be discriminated against when offering training for inhaler use. Even if the disabled student understands the need for an asthma inhaler, the school nurse should intervene and help. 


            Connecticut laws were passed to promote the rights of children with asthma. They govern the independent and assisted use of inhalers in school children. School nurses have the greatest role in caring for preschoolers they are not fully developed. They must maintain close monitoring and perform regular screening to test for asthma. When they diagnose asthma, they should apply the right measures and help them use inhalers. Children past years old with asthma should be followed to ensure they use inhalers at the designated time, students aged between 7 and 9 years old are aware of their health changes. They can reach out to the school nurse independently to help in inhaler use. A written agreement is suitable to school-aged children and those in 12th grade because they can be naïve. Despite the understanding to use inhalers they can forget to use, share or cease using the inhalers if not monitored by the school nurse.


Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. How Does Connecticut Rank for Asthma and Allergy Policies? | AAFA.org. https://www.aafa.org/connecticut-state-honor-roll/.

Connecticutchildrens.org, n.d. Who Can Use an Inhaler? – Connecticut Children’s. Connecticutchildrens.org. https://www.connecticutchildrens.org/health-library/en/kids/inhaler

Connecticutchildrens.org. Easy Breathing© for Schools – Connecticut Children’s. Connecticutchildrens.org. https://www.connecticutchildrens.org/community-child-health/community-child-health-programs/asthma-center/easy-breathing-for-schools/.

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2020). The Growing Child: Preschool (4-5 Years). https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/the-growing-child-preschool-4-to-5-years

Justia US Law. 2018 Connecticut General Statutes: Title 10 – Education and Culture :: Chapter 169 – School Health and Sanitation :: Section 10-212a – Administration of medications in schools, at athletic events and to children in school readiness programs. Justia Law. https://law.justia.com/codes/connecticut/2018/title-10/chapter-169/section-10-212a/.

McCabe, E. M., McDonald, C., Connolly, C., & Lipman, T. H. (2019). A review of school nurses’ self-efficacy in asthma care. The Journal of School Nursing35(1), 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1059840518808886

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 13,14,15

Szefler, S. (2019). Managing asthma and allergies in schools: An opportunity to coordinate health care. Journal Of Allergy And Clinical Immunology, 124(2), 201-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.05.045

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school‐based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta‐analysis of follow‐up effects. Child development88(4), 1156-1171. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12864