Assignment:

Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework. Each paragraph must have at least 2-3 in-text APA citation from the References list.

Learning Materials

Selekman, J., & Shannon, R. A. (2019). School nursing: A comprehensive text (3rd ed.). F.A. Davis Company. Read Chapters 5,16 & 17

The Nemours Foundation/KidsHealth. (2020). KidsHealth in the Classroom. KidsHealth in the Classroom. https://classroom.kidshealth.org/

Discovery Education. (2020). Keeping You Connected to Curiosityhttps://www.discoveryeducation.com/

Assignment:

In an essay of 1500 to 2000 words, using at least 2 APA style cited references, write an essay in APA style on:

  1. Table 16.3 lists various government, non-government, and NASN specific resources for health promotion at school. Pick one of the types discussing the resource, the description, and a thorough discussion of what the resource offers to health professionals and students.
  2. Discuss the CDC guidelines for animals in the classroom.
  3. Describe three vaccines (other than influenza), the disease that it prevents, and a description of the disease.
  4. Consider this: There are numerous cases of influenza in the school. Your principal asks what can be done. Extra cleaning? Close the school? Who would you consult with to make these decisions? After consulting, what would you suggest to your principal?

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500-2000 words; 

Structure: Include a title page and reference page (if needed) in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)

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WK 1 DISCUSSION GRADING RUBRICS

This table lists criteria and criteria group name in the first column. The first row lists level names and includes scores if the rubric uses a numeric scoring method.Criteria

Does Not Meet 0%

Approaches 70%

Meets 80%

Exceeds 100%

Criterion Score

Content of Initial Thread/Post Weight: 40%

0 points

Response contains little to none of the required aspects of the prompt; Content is off topic; references are not included. APA reference/citation format is not used.

5.6 points

Major required aspects of the prompt are not addressed or the response speaks in vague generalities. Information is too general; 1 reference is present, but it is non-scholarly (if required) and/or it does not appropriately reflect the topic. APA reference/citation format may be inaccurate in the response.

6.4 points

Response addresses prompt requirements. Content is relevant and germane to the intent of the prompt; 1 or more references are scholarly (if required) and/or appropriately reflect topic, and have few APA formatting errors.

8 points

Content includes additional or novel points beyond the intent of the prompt. References are sufficient, scholarly in nature, and are formatted correctly in APA format.

Score of Content of Initial Thread/Post Weight: 40%,/ 8

Critical Thinking of Thread/Post Weight: 10%

0 points

Little analysis or insight is displayed; Little or no logical support or reasoning is present

1.4 points

Some illogical statements and poor reasoning displayed; argument is unclear or convoluted

1.6 points

Response indicates that thought, insight, and analysis has taken place; Argument is solid and logical

2 points

Response is rich in critical thinking, and full of thought, insight, and analysis; Argument is clear and concise

Score of Critical Thinking of Thread/Post Weight: 10%,/ 2

Quality of Written Communication in Initial Thread/Post Weight: 20%

0 points

Style and voice inappropriate or do not address given audience, purpose, etc. Word choice is excessively redundant, clichéd, and unspecific. Inconsistent grammar, spelling, punctuation, and paragraphing. Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.

2.8 points

Style and voice are somewhat appropriate to given audience and purpose. Word choice is often unspecific, generic, redundant, and clichéd. Repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language, sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.

3.2 points

Style and voice are appropriate to the given audience and purpose. Word choice is specific and purposeful, and somewhat varied throughout. Minimal mechanical or typographical errors are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

4 points

Style and voice are not only appropriate to the given audience and purpose, but also show originality and creativity. Word choice is specific, purposeful, dynamic and varied. Free of mechanical and typographical errors. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Score of Quality of Written Communication in Initial Thread/Post Weight: 20%,/ 4

Discussion Responses to Classmates’ Threads/Posts Weight: 30%

0 points

Did not make an effort to participate in learning community as it develops; Displays lack of engagement with discussion forum; Did not make the minimum of 2 responses to classmates.

4.2 points

Occasionally makes meaningful reflection on group’s efforts; Marginal effort to become involved with group; Made one response to classmates

4.8 points

Frequently attempts to direct the discussion and present relevant viewpoints for consideration by group; Interacts freely; Met the minimum of 2 responses to classmates

6 points

Shows astute awareness of needs of community; Frequently attempts to motivate the group discussion; Presents creative approaches to topic; Made at least 2 responses to classmates

Score of Discussion Responses to Classmates’ Threads/Posts Weight: 30%,/ 6

Rubric Total ScoreTotal

/ 20

Overall Score

Overall Score

Level 10 points minimum

Level 214 points minimum

Level 316 points minimum

Level 420 points minimum

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Introduction

            This paper aims to describe methods of improving school health and public health. It bases the argument on Action for Healthy Kids in promoting skills and wellbeing in health professionals and students. It describes CDC guidelines for animals in the classroom, Inactivated polio vaccine, BCG vaccine, Gardasil 9 and their effect on their respective diseases. Finally, a recommendation is provided to mitigate influenza in school.

Action for Healthy Kids

              Action for Healthy Kids is a non-profit organization geared towards promoting health and wellness in kids. The organization embarks on assessing school children health and implementing sustainable change. The organization amasses resources from the community, donations and partnerships to create an environment where students can access healthy foods and safe places for children to play and exercises. Besides making life better, Actions for healthy kids’ resources contribute towards creating healthy schools with improved emotional health, learning experience and low risk of diseases (Action for Healthy Kids .n.d.). Health professionals can learn how to foster behaviour change; train children about healthy eating and advice families on how to make healthy decisions. Through actions for healthy kids programs, students and health professionals especially school nurse would learn about nutrition based physical activity games.  Health professional can get well informed with nutrition education, offering personalized support, social-emotional health and implementing active play.

CDC Guidelines for Animals in the Classroom

           Animals make the class entertaining and educational because children learn a lot and make the experience enjoyable. They act as teaching aids. However, children in preschool and school-aged kids can carry pathogen from animals. It is imperative to be aware of the risks and illnesses that animals pose when presented in the classroom (Cdc.gov .n.d.). For that reason, CDC guidelines for animals ensure children remain healthy while enjoying the experience and learning from animals. Even when an animal appears clean and healthy, it can have detrimental germs.  Germs such as Salmonella and E. coli can be brought in classrooms by contaminated animal products. The CDC guidelines forbid bringing of poultry, reptiles, ferrets, amphibians in learning environments with children aged below five years old (Cdc.gov .n.d.). Educators should monitor children when they contact animals.  They should ensure that young students do not put their hands or objects in their mouth during or after dealing with animals.  Designated areas should be set aside for student –animal interaction. Children below 5 years old should not touch or handle Owl pellets, baby chick and duck they might have Salmonella or Campylobacter (Cdc.gov .n.d.). Food or drinks should be prepared, served and eaten far away from the animals. Places of dissecting animals and their products should be disinfected regularly. Animals should be kept free from internal and external parasites before a presentation. Birds show test negative for avian chlamydiosis.

            It is imperative to consult parents to ascertain special concerns for kids with respiratory conditions, allergies amongst other conditions. Both educators and students should observe hand hygiene after handling animals, their products or visiting their habitats (Cdc.gov .n.d.). The teachers are obliged to monitor and direct hand washing for the students. CDC also recommends the use of hand sanitiser after contacting animals.  The following animals are forbidden from school presentation. They include inherently dangerous animals, non-human primates, venomous or toxin-producing animals, wild animals that spread rabies, stray animals and unpredictable animals.

           It is mandatory to test animal health status before presenting them in a classroom. CDC guidelines necessitate that animals must undergo appropriate and regular veterinary care. Dogs and cats should have a rabies vaccination. Animals from different countries or states should be accompanied by a health certificate given by an authorized veterinarian (Cdc.gov .n.d.). School policies and local regulation on animal bringing in school should be obeyed. Educators should contact a veterinarian, pet store, or breeder when an animal fall sick or dies. CDC guidelines necessitate training to breeders and pet store owners to be conversant with zoonotic diseases and animal handling (Cdc.gov .n.d.). Caution should be taken dealing with a sick animal. Cages should be cleaned and disinfected before and after use. Animal’s bites should be washed with warm soapy water and call for immediate medical intervention. Animals should be displayed in enclosed cages once teaching is over, places that the animals were presents should be disinfected. Educators should use disposable gloves when cleaning aquariums. Aquarium water should not be drained near drinking water and sinks made for food preparation.

Inactivated Polio Vaccine and Poliomyelitis

              Inactivated polio vaccine is widely recommended to protect children from polio. The vaccine is made up of three poliovirus strains. They include Mahoney type 1Middle East Forces 1 type 2 and Saukett type 3. Inactivated polio vaccine is given through injection. The shot is administered on a leg or arm based on individual age. Four doses of inactivated polio vaccine are recommended.  The doses should be given when the child is 2 months old, four months old, six months old, eighteen months old, 4 through to 6 years old (Cdc.gov .n.d.).  Children travelling to polio risk areas are advised to complete the whole dose before travelling. If the need to travel is urgent an accelerated schedule is accepted.  the accelerated dose should follow the following criteria, the first dose at age 6 weeks or older, second dose 4 or more weeks after the first dose, third dose 4 or more weeks after the second dose, and fourth dose 6 or more months after the third dose.  If the accelerated schedule is unachievable, the child can receive vaccination in another country or after returning home. However, children who undergo the accelerated schedule should be vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine at four years old. There must be a six-month gap after the last dose to administer the 4-year dose. Since most adults were vaccinated with the polio vaccine when they were young, they can be vaccinated for the population if they are travelling to a high-risk polio country (Cdc.gov .n.d.). Persons working in laboratories with specimens with polioviruses should also consider IPV. Clinicians handling patients with polio should also be vaccinated. Nevertheless, unvaccinated adults should receive three doses of inactivated polio vaccine. The first dose is administered at any time, the following dose is injected one to two months later, and the last dose received six to twelve months after the second dose. Adults who have received only two doses of polio vaccine should vaccinate the remainder dose to complete the polio vaccine. One lifetime booster dose of IPV is suitable for healthcare providers dealing with polio patients and adults who were vaccinated after childhood (Cdc.gov .n.d.). Children or adults who had a life-threatening allergic reaction to IPV dose should not receive the vaccine. Also, a person getting mild illnesses after IPV administration should recover before continuing with the dose.

           Poliomyelitis commonly referred to as polio is a life-threatening and disabling condition. it Is caused by the poliovirus. The virus is infectious. The virus lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines (Cdc.gov .n.d.). The mouth is the main point of entry of the virus. A person can get polio when s/he comes into contact with an infected person stool or droplet of sneeze or cough. Polio affects the human spinal cord, causing paresthesia, meningitis and paralysis. There is no treatment for polio after the virus manifests in the body.

Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine and tuberculosis (TB) disease

           BCG vaccination is recommended to prevent tuberculosis but is used for bladder cancer/tumors treatment.  The vaccine is made up of strains of tuberculosis bacterium that cause the disease. Persons at high risk of developing Tuberculosis are urged to receive the BCG vaccine (Fritschi, Curtis, & Ritz, 2020). The vaccine is administered to the skin. The vaccinated area should remain clean and dry until the spot of vaccination disappears. Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine is administered once but can be re-administrated after poor response within two to three months after the first injection. Patients should inform the clinician about BCG or other drug allergies before injection. The patient should also take precautions. S/he should inform the clinician about a recent smallpox vaccination, immune disorder, ailment, taking medication, undergoing therapy, pregnancy or pregnancy plans before BCG administration.

           Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  The disease attacks the lungs, brain and spine. Tuberculosis is either latent or active. Tuberculosis is spread through the air from one person to another (Churchyard et al., 2017). Contaminated droplets are spread after sneezing or coughing cause the infection. Tuberculosis signs and symptoms include, coughing, sneezing, fever, chest pain, chills amongst others.

Gardasil 9 and Human Papilloma Virus

           GARDASIL 9 is an injectable vaccine made to protect men and women from cancers caused by the human papillomavirus. Gardasil 9 is prophylactic. The vaccine is not effective for people with active HPV infections.  Boys and girls aged 9, 11 and 12 years can receive Gardasil 9. The vaccine is ideal for boys and girls who are not sexually active. Two doses of GARDASIL 9 are recommended and should be administered six months apart. however three doses the most effective (Printz, 2015). Gardasil 9 is not responsive to people with impaired immune responsiveness. The vaccine should be given with caution to people with GARDASIL 9 ingredients allergies, pregnant women, coagulation disorder and thrombocytopaenia.

           Human papillomavirus is a viral infection that affects the reproductive tract. Sexually active persons are more susceptible to HPV (Cdc.gov .n.d.). However penetrative sex is the only mode of HPV transmission. The virus can be spread through skin to skin genital contact. HPV can progress to cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva, anus, penis, and vagina.

Influenza in the school

           High cases of influenza in school do not necessarily mean extra cleaning and closing the school is effective. I would consult the Department of Health and Human Services to help in making thoughtful decisions. I would use the Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan to create strategies for preventing, controlling, and mitigating the disease. After the consultation, I would request the school to continue with cleaning activities, disinfect surfaces and ensure students stay healthy. Supplies such as no-touch trash cans, gloves, disinfectant wipes and authorized cleaning products should be provided.

Conclusion

              Resources from Actions for healthy kids are beneficial to health professional’s school children. Through the organisation initiatives, teachers learn about nutrition education and how to promote health in a learning environment. Young students learn active playing and healthy eating. The mentioned CDC guidelines on animals in the classroom are meant to ensure safety and prevent diseases that can be transmitted from animals. Inactivated polio vaccine is more effective in children but can be administered in vulnerable population and people who did not receive vaccination during childhood. Gardasil 9 is more effective in boys and girls who are not sexually active but ineffective in people with HPV infection. BCG vaccination can be administered to anyone vulnerable to Tuberculosis infection. My recommendation to combat influenza would focus on the Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan.

References

Action for Healthy Kids; http://www.actionforhealthykids.org/

Cdc.gov. Polio Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know | CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/polio/public/index.html

Cdc.gov. What is Polio?. https://www.cdc.gov/polio/what-is-polio/index.htm

Cdc.gov. HPV Vaccination and Cancer Prevention | CDC https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/index.html

Cdc.gov. Appendix D Guidelines for Animals in School and Child-Care Settings. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5805a5.htm

Cdc.gov. Animals in Schools and Daycares | Healthy Pets, Healthy People | CDC. Retrieved 9 April 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/specific-groups/schools.html

Printz, C. (2015). FDA approves Gardasil 9 for more types of HPV. Cancer121(8), 1156-1157. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29374

Fritschi, N., Curtis, N., & Ritz, N. (2020). Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) and new TB vaccines: specific, cross-mycobacterial and off-target effects. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2020.08.004

Churchyard, G., Kim, P., Shah, N. S., Rustomjee, R., Gandhi, N., Mathema, B., & Cardenas, V. (2017). What we know about tuberculosis transmission: an overview. The Journal of infectious diseases216(suppl_6), S629-S635. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix362