Assignment:

Each assignment must contain an INTRODUCTION and CONCLUSION page. Make sure you follow the Grading Rubrics to write the homework. Each paragraph must have at least 2-3 in-text APA citation from the References list.

Examine the literature related to case management for clients with HIV/AIDS. In a scholarly submission of 1500 to 2000 words, answer the following questions. Your submission should contain a minimum of three references.

  • What does the evidence indicate overall regarding the effectiveness of case management for this condition and client population?
  • Are there client-or population related factors that influence the effectiveness of case management strategies? How might these factors be modified to promote more effective case management?
  • What health promotion, illness prevention, problem resolution, and health restoration activities might be appropriate in dealing with the problem of HIV/AIDS client population? Which of these activities might you carry out yourself? Which would require collaboration with other community members? Who might these other people be?

Assignment Expectations

Length: 1500 – 2000 words; answers must thoroughly address the questions in a clear, concise manner.

Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimum word count for this assignment.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include at least three (3) scholarly sources to support your claims.

Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).

File name: Name your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)

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Case Management for HIV/AIDS Clients

The HIV/AIDS crisis is a challenging fact since it affects everyone at different societal levels. Therefore, every individual has the responsibility to collaborate in its management. Case management in healthcare is an indispensable concept given its significant role in promoting health and preventing injury and illnesses. Lukersmith, Millington & Salvador-Carulla (2016) describe case management incorporated with clinical practice as highly valuable to impeding quality analysis, policy, and planning. Additionally, case management activities uniquely contribute to healthcare integration, social services and support people living with complex health conditions (Lukersmith, Millington & Salvador-Carulla, 2016). For instance, this discussion examines scholarly literature regarding case management activities for HIV/AIDS clients. Case management for HIV/AIDS populations involves community-driven strategies and programs intended to cater to the client population’s unique health needs. Patients living with this condition are encouraged to assimilate specific activities into daily life to manage their condition. This paper seeks to respond to prompts to demonstrate case management’s effectiveness for the HIV/AIDS client population.

Evidence: Case Management Effectiveness

Often, case management uptake entails a multi-step process designed to address the various HIV/AIDS patient’s exclusive needs. Building on Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian (2020), these strategies involve helping HIV/AIDS patients’ access healthcare services timely, receive coordinated efforts from medical and psychological providers, alongside developing a family/close support system. Case management effectiveness facilitates retention in care. Arguably, López, Shacham & Brown (2020) mention that retention in care is crucial to achieving viral suppression beneficial in HIV treatment outcome. As a quality care indicator, high retention in care rate is a case management consequence.

Case management is overall effective regarding HIV and the client population by drastically reducing cases of mortality. Engaging in management activities such as practicing safe sex and getting tests for other STDs decreases mortality among the HIV/AIDS client population. According to Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel (2016), HIV-positive persons accorded care and optimal antiretroviral treatment outcomes significantly decrease mortality. Healthcare providers can educate patients on healthy living and disease management, impacting retention rates in survival. Resultantly, with decreased HIV patient mortality comes improved health outcomes. For this reason, case management strategies such as following a doctor’s prescription, healthy eating, and regular exercise are shown to promote overall population health for affected communities.

Notably, case managing activities are frequently linked to reduced risky behaviors and decreased unmet needs. For instance, López, Shacham & Brown (2020) recommend frequent visits to the clinic for educational programs to reduce risky behaviors. Since depression is a common disorder among HIV-positive persons due to stigmatization, counseling services can be effective case management activities. Further, it helps to meet unfulfilled patient needs by offering free medication and other essentials for recovery. 

Influencing Client/Population Factors

Client/Population factors influencing case management effectiveness are necessary to ensure positive healthcare outcomes for HIV/AIDS patients. Based on Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian’s (2020) health promotional strategies findings, easing access to and enhancing the close partnership with healthcare providers and community service resources improves case management effectiveness. Local government and healthcare organizations can partner with communities to actualize the above factors. Availability of healthcare facilities brings health providers closer to the patients and fosters healthy relationships for mutual benefit. For this reason, public health providers can effectively manage HIV/AIDS cases with the greatest need through frequent contact.

Self-management support is considered an individual-skill building factor influential in enhancing case management effectiveness. Self-management support is a client-related factor that equips an individual with the skills necessary to effectively regulate one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors (Park & Park, 2018). When patients are taught to practice efficient self-management practices integrated with case management interventions delivered by public health nurses, the possibility of a positive outcome is inevitable. More significantly, Park & Park (2018) believe that it empowers and improves the patient’s life quality and reduces health care burdens.

Another population-related factor deemed to improve case management effectiveness entails encouraging and attending group support meetings. According to Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel (2016), these meetings are considered case management tools, where case managers help improve patient outcomes in a dynamic healthcare setting. Additionally, promoting face-to-face meetings reduces stigmatization dramatically among HIV/AIDS client population. By evaluating the proximal and intermediate intervention effects on a patient, Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel (2016) believe that physicians can better meet the unfulfilled patient needs.

Factors Modification to Enhance Effective Case Management

Easing timely access to healthcare services can be modified in various ways to promote more effective case management practices. For instance, local state authorities conjoining with healthcare professionals can safeguard adequate Children’s Health Insurance Program funding for children born in a family where HIV/AIDS illness exists (López, Shacham & Brown, 2020). Additionally, promoting Medicaid expansion and healthcare facilities setups in more remote places ultimately improves case management effectiveness. Further, addressing physician shortages’ challenges modifies the close building relations with healthcare providers (Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel, 2016). For instance, in the U.S eliminating barriers to physician immigration for foreign-rained physicians can provide a lasting solution to physician shortages.

Self-management modification to promote more effective case management can be achieved through educating more individuals on the most effective management practices for their conditions. The effects of informing, motivating, and modeling behavioral factors offer patients the chance to assume an active role in their health care outcomes (Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian, 2020). Informed physicians and community members understand that self-management support extends beyond supplying patients with information. Park & Park (2018) explain that it involves a commitment to patient-centered case management practices to enhance healthier lives among HV/AIDS client population. Collaboration between providers and patients through support follow-up and patient tracking concurrently improves self-management in advancing case management effectiveness.

Setting up more support meeting facilities while creating awareness on participation effectiveness modifies this factor to promote more effective case management activities. Conferring to Lukersmith, Millington & Salvador-Carulla (2016), case management is more effective when providers and patients frequently in contact. Face-to-face meetings bring together different members from contrasting societal levels to an equal and comfortable standard. Here they can open up about their devastating challenges, and case managers can have an efficient opportunity to improve their case management strategies for patient’s benefit.

Activities for Dealing with HIV/AIDS Client Population

In general, health promotion significance is proven to improve individuals, families, communities, states, and the nation’s health status. Most essentially, it promotes life quality for all the people, alongside reducing premature death cases, according to Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian (2020). A health promotional activity for dealing with the HIV/AIDS client population problem entails educating and encouraging patients to exercise regularly. Building on Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel (2016), integrated healthcare case managers strongly believe that increased blood flow, reduced stress, and strengthened antibodies, consequential to regular exercising, bolsters the immune system. Resultantly, HV/AIDS patients can enjoy longevity since the immune system can fight off infections.

Individual HIV and Mass testing strategy is a crucial prevention strategy for dealing with HIV/AIDS client population challenge. Park & Park (2018) propose widespread HIV testing results in prompt diagnosis and early association to treatment and care. When appropriately channeled, such efforts improve HIV/AIDS patients’ health and prevent the risk of complicated health problems or premature death. Further, Park & Park (2018) mention that testing mitigates unknowing virus transmission to healthy people. It enhances early diagnosis after infection and widens the window of opportunity for effective intervention strategies. 

At the community level, introducing educative evidence-based programs aids in problem resolution and health restoration for HIV/AIDS client population. For instance, Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian (2020) proposes formulating a comprehensive program approach focusing on both abstinence and safer sex practice. Particularly for young people, it must include avoiding sex before marriage and accessing and using condoms. HIV-positive patients should be taught functional knowledge regarding healthy eating and lifestyle.

Personal Activities

As a young person, educating peers to abstain from or practice safer sex is an activity one can execute individually. Park & Park (2018) demonstrate that such an activity extends the healthcare campaign program regarding HIV/AIDS widespread prevention. Joining HIV test campaigns and encouraging community members to get tested can effectively manage HIV/AIDS. For instance, mass media campaigns are, in most cases, appropriately suited to meet prevention and health promotion objectives. Conversely, integrated case managers advise creating awareness through personal and community social media platforms regarding self-testing and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, according to Kathol, Knutson & Dehnel (2016). Further, these activities and programs are considered potential innovations for HIV testing and prevention. Particularly do they empower the youth to stay aware of their status and avoid infection.

Collaborative Activities and People Involved

Faithfulness to a partner is a couple’s collaborative effort in dealing with the HIV/AIDS challenge. Despite numerous campaigns on abstinence and practicing safer sex, both parties must practice partner faithfulness to achieve the desired results. Correspondingly, health care providers can partner with nutritionists and dieticians, alongside community members, to advise the best diets and food intake plans to bolster the patient’s immune system (Ameri, Movahed & Farokhzadian, 2020). Governments, local state authorities, and healthcare professionals can conjoin with community members encouraging regular or schedule clinic appointment attendance.

Successively, associating the above with enrolling more individuals into the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical case management programs are significant determinants for improved HIV health outcomes (López, Shacham & Brown, 2020). In as much as Clinic Policy Attendance could be perceived as an individual responsibility, government, local state authority, and health care professional interventions ensure policy objective actualization.

Conclusion

Numerous scholarly literature discussions have been prepared in the quest to demonstrate case management activities’ effectiveness. This paper has endeavored to emphasize case management effectiveness for HIV/AIDS client population in responding to specific prompts. Evidently, case management strategies such as retention in care, decreased mortality, timely access to health care facilities, and reduced risky behaviors are effective for HIV condition and client population. With the client/population factors influence, case management effectiveness is drastically improved. Self-management and group support meetings factor, further modified, promote more effective case management outcomes.

Client population education and awareness regarding regular exercise provably strengthen antibodies and overall bolsters the immune system. Evidence-based programs availed to HIV/AIDS client population improve problem resolution and health restoration. In light of the above, case management as client-driven programs and activities augment quality population healthcare outcomes. Healthcare case managers understand the significance of client support systems and the appropriate use of skills and resources to empower clients objectively.

References

Ameri, M., Movahed, E., & Farokhzadian, J. (2020). Effect of information, motivation, and behavioral skills model on adherence to medication, diet, and physical activity in HIV/ADIS patients: A health promotion strategy. Journal of Education and Health Promotion9.

Kathol, R. G., Knutson, K. H., & Dehnel, P. J. (2016). Physician’s Guide: Understanding and Working with Integrated Case Managers. Humana Press.

López, J. D., Shacham, E., & Brown, T. (2020). The Impact of Clinic Policy Attendance and the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Case Management Program on HIV Clinical Outcomes: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study. AIDS and Behavior24(4), 1161-1169.

Lukersmith, M. S., Millington, M., & Salvador-Carulla, L. (2016). What is case management? A scoping and mapping review. International journal of integrated care16(4).

Park, C. S. Y., & Park, E. (2018). Factors influencing patient-perceived satisfaction with community-based case management services. Western journal of nursing research40(11), 1598-1613.