Community Assessment Worksheet

GUIDELINES FOR A WINDSHIELD SURVEY

 

  • Use a mapGoogle Maps or similar services are an excellent resource
  • Drive at a moderate speed, and avoid unexpected actions
  • Drive both on major and minor streets, particularly in residential neighborhoods. You’ll want to get a sense of different parts of neighborhoods and different streets.
  • Pull over at regular intervals to make notes. DO NOT WRITE OR TAKE PICTURES WHILE DRIVING. AVOID DISTRACTED DRIVING AT ALL TIMES.
  • Try to be inconspicuous, but if asked what you are doing be honest.

GUIDELINES FOR A WALKING SURVEY

  • Study a map beforehand
  • For safety sake, we recommend that you do not perform any part of the windshield survey alone. Try not to take more than 2 people. Two or three people walking together are a normal group, but five or six is a crowd, and stands out.Plan to perform the windshield survey during daylight hours only.
  • If you want to experience the community, take part in everyday activities. Take public transportation, eat in a local restaurant, buy something in a drugstore or supermarket or discount store. This will give you a chance to listen to people’s conversations and to get a sense of how they interact.
  • Go inside public buildings and cultural institutions

If you have the time, combine the windshield and walking survey techniques over several trips in order to get a feel for the daily variations – try to alternate the time of day, if possible.

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As always, please consider your safety in completing the survey. Chose a different day to go if there are poor driving conditions, and do not go into areas that feel unsafe.

You will note that the survey asks you to talk to residents: please do not leave this step out! The people in the community know more about it than you can learn from walking/driving through. Be sensible about whom you talk with and what is going on around you, and be respectful. You may find varying perspectives from different members of the community – this adds to the depth of your findings.

Common sources of data to supplement the windshield survey include: US Census data, Chamber of Commerce, community libraries, social service agencies, RTD, US Department of Labor, your state Department of Public Health and Department of Education, police and fire departments, local public health agencies, local stores.

You must address each required subsection of the survey, but the questions that are included on the worksheet are to be used as a guideline only. You might want to include additional information to address your specific location.

 Adapted from Anderson & McFarlane (2011) Community as Partner: Theory and Practice in Nursing, 6th ed. Lippincott, Williams & WilkinsUse this tool to complete the windshield survey
Windshield Survey Worksheet  
 OBSERVATIONS/ DATA
I.  Community Core 1.  History–Is there any pertinent history for your location (e.g., old, established neighborhoods; new subdivision)? Is it a rural, suburban or urban community? What is your feel of the population density?Miami is an urban community located in the state of Florida. It is regarded as the largest metropolitan area in the state of Florida representing 13.4 percent of the population of the state, which comprises 2, 685, 410 residents as per 2014-2018 US Census American Community survey.  
2.  Demographics–What is the population of the community? Has the community experienced a recent increase or loss of population (in-migration versus out-migration)? What are the age, gender and racial distribution of the community? Can you find birth and death rates for the community?  The population of Miami comprises Whites, Asians, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Latino, Hispanic, and others. However, it is one of the few areas in the U.S with minority group comprising the majority of its population, comprising of 66.4 percent of the population compared to 24.1 percent of the entire state of Florida. In terms of gender, 48.52 percent of Miami’s population comprise male, and 51.48 percent comprise female. 19.90 percent of its residents live below Federal Poverty Level (FPL). The highest birth rates in Miami during 2017-2019 were highest among blacks (61.9 percent), followed by Hispanics (55.0 percent), Asian/Pacific Islanders (45.8percent), American Indian/Alaska Natives (18.0 percent), and whites (12.1 percent (National Center for Health Statistics, 2021).    
3.  Ethnicity–Do you note indicators of different ethnic groups (e.g., restaurants, festivals)? What signs do you see of different cultural groups, if any? Is there a predominant culture?  Miami is recognized for its rich heritage and several cultural influences. Majority of its population are Spanish-speakers. The neighborhood is a home to most recognized festivals, including the Three Kings Parade, Cultural Fridays/Viernes Culturales, and the Calle Ocho Festival. In places like Little Havana, there is colorful street life with several pop shops and restaurants with some of the most authentic and credible Cuban food such as Cuban sandwich as well as theatres and museums. With the influences from Cuba and other regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, Miami has unique rich culture.
4.  Religion–Are there churches, mosques, temples? Where are they located within the community? Any religious schools? Is there evidence of religious homogeneity or diversity?  There are various churches, mosques, and temples in Miami as its population comprises Christians, Muslims, and Judaism. Majority of its population are Christians regardless of its religious diversity.
  II. Subsystems 1.  Physical Environment–How does the community look? What is the age and condition of the majority of housing? Do housing conditions vary in different parts of the community? How is the land used (open space, residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial)? Is there any evidence of pollution (water, soil, air) or environmental concerns (rodents, trash)?What is the size (e.g., square miles, blocks)?As the population of Miami booms, the city continues with its efforts to remain clean, and is one of the cleanest cities in the U.S. Housing in Miami is relatively expensive and one in every four residents in Miami live in poverty. Renters in Miami spend more than 38 percent of the medium household income to pay for rent. Water pollution and soil pollution is a major concern in Miami as the area is susceptible to lead corrosions that leaches into the soil and drinking water that eventually reach toxic levels. According to the World Population Review (2021), Miami has a population density of 13, 286 people per square mile.    
2.  Health & Social Services–What are the major causes of morbidity and mortality? What is the infant mortality rate and teenage pregnancy rate? Are there any ’traditional” healers (e.g., curanderos, herbalists)? Are there clinics, ambulances, hospitals, practitioners’ offices, home health agencies, urgent or emergency care centers, nursing homes, social service facilities, mental health services?The major causes of morbidity and mortality in Miami, include heart disease, cancer, accidents, and chronic lower respiratory diseases. (CDC, 2018). The average infant mortality rate in Miami during 2016-2018 was highest in black infants (11.7 percent), Hispanics (3.7 percent), and whites (2.7 percent) (National Center for Health Statistics, 2021). The teen birth rates in 2019 were highest among teens aged 15-19 years. There are herbalists’ stores in Miami as you walk across the streets. The city has a range of services, including clinics, ambulances, hospitals, practitioners’ offices, home health agencies, urgent or emergency care centers, nursing homes, social service facilities, and mental health services.
3.  Economy and Safety–Do you see signs of economic growth such as real estate signs or new construction, remodeling or street repair? Do you see signs of community decline such as trash, abandoned cars, graffiti or rundown housing?     Are there industries, stores, places for employment? What occupations (retail, industrial, farming, service, government, tourism or unemployed) are represented in the community? Where do people grocery shop, inside or outside of the community? Is there a difference in types of stores available in different neighborhoods or parts of the community? What is the unemployment rate? What types of protective services are there (e.g., fire, police)?  What types of crimes are committed here? What is the geographic distribution of crimes? Are there any signs of neighborhood watch programs?    There are street repairs, new constructions, and remodeling across Miami. It is difficult to find an abandoned car or rundown housing in the neighborhood for safety and maintaining a clean neighborhood. The city has various industries and stores, including aviation, banking, hospitality, healthcare, supermarkets, among others for employment. Various occupations are represented in the city including cooks, waiters, nurses, doctors, farmers, retailers, administrators, secretaries, and many more. Residents of Miami buy grocery within the community as there are several groceries including D Market Place, Gfs Market Place, Latin American Market, and several others. The different stores in Miami sell a variety of goods, including luxury home goods, clothes, foods, footwear, home appliances, and many more. The current unemployment rate in Miami is higher than the long-term average of 6.25 percent, and is at 7.10 percent.  The neighborhood has different protective services including law enforcement officers, fire rescue services, adult protective services, child abuse, domestic violence protective services, and others.   The common types of crimes in Miami include murder, rape, assault, and robbery. The most dangerous neighborhoods of Miami include Overtown, Model City, Little Haiti, Downtown, Allapattah, Wynwood, and Upper Eastside. The Youth Crime Watch of Miami and Neighborhood Crime watch program do close monitoring of crimes in Miami.   
4. Transportation –How do people get around? What type of private and public transportation is available? Do you see buses, bicycles, taxis? Are there sidewalks, bike trails? Is getting around in the community possible for people with disabilities?  The area includes both private and public transport means. Most of the residents use the public means. There are buses, taxi, and bicycles on various roads of Miami. There are also sidewalks and bike trails along Miami roads. People with disabilities can access public transport just like others.
5.  Politics and Government–What is the local governmental jurisdiction of the community and how is it organized (e.g., elected mayor, city council with single member districts)? What services does the local government provide to residents?  The head of Miami is an elected mayor who acts as the chief executive of the city, and works along with a board of commissioners who act as the primary legislative body of the city. The local government offers municipal services like fire rescue services and police, and metropolitan services such as public housing, emergency management, airport and seaport operations to all residents.  
6.  Public Health–What is the local health department? How big is the agency and what population does it serve? What services are provided?   The Florida Department of Health heads health services in Miami. The department services all residents of the state of Florida, including Miami residents. It offers various health and family services such as adoption programs, assisted living facilities, assistance programs, aging and health programs, and others. 
7.  Education–Are there schools in the area? Do they look well-maintained and how are they rated academically? What are the drop-out rates? How far are the schools from the center of the community? Are there any school health services? Are there any higher-education schools available in the community? Are there any libraries?  Miami has both public and private schools that are well maintained. The neighborhood has a history of high dropout rates, low school attendance, and poor academic performance due to high poverty and ethnically diverse student population. There are higher-education schools available in Miami, such as the Everglades University, and the Carlos Albizu University-Miami. There are numerous libraries in the neighborhood where children can visit and study.  
8.  Recreation–Where do children play? What are the major forms of recreation? What facilities for recreation do you see? Are there any movie theatres, bowling alleys or amusement parks in the area? Are there any recreation programs aimed at specific groups such as seniors or preschoolers?  Miami consists of soft sand beaches, parks, zoos, art districts, and outdoor nature experiences where children and families can visit and have fun.  The city has a range of recreational options for seniors, including walking, biking, yoga, meditation, and golf, among other wellness activities.  
    
2.  Your Perceptions–General statements about the “health” of this community.
What are its strengths or assets?
Upon completion of the windshield survey, what health- related problems can you identify for this community? (Be specific)  
The general health of Miami is good, but the high levels of poverty and rise in morbidity and mortality rates due to chronic diseases, put the residents’ health at jeopardy. There is need to ensure increased access to health among the elderly to ensure their conditions are properly managed.  There is need for screening, diagnosis, and preventive services to allow for early diagnosis of chronic conditions such as cancer and heart disease, and consequent prevention. The local department of health should ensure that health services are affordable, equitable, and easily accessible due to the high poverty levels in this neighborhood. 
Note: Supplement your impressions with information from the census, police records, school statistics, chamber of commerce data, and health department reports, and so on to confirm or refute your conclusions. Tables, graphs, and maps are helpful and will aid in your analysis.   Cite all sources per APA guidelines

References

National Center for Health Statistics, final fatality data. US Census Bureau. (2021). Population estimates based on bridged race categories released by the National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/bridged_race.htm

National Center for Health Statistics. (2021). Period linked birth/infant death data. https://www.nber.org/research/data/linked-birthinfant-death-cohort-data

World Population Review. (2021). Miami, Florida Population 2021. https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/miami-fl-population       

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ( (2018). Stats of the State of Florida. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/states/florida/florida.htm

Scoring Rubric for Community Assessment Practicum Assignment

  Criteria7-10 points Excellent5-7 points Average0-4 points Poor
 Area Identified Name of community Geographic location of the community State or territory Rural, urban Map includedClear, concise and complete Clearly sets a location for the community Map included of communityMap included, but location information is incomplete, either on map or in slide notesMissing a map and/or location information
Community Core HistoryEthnicity and CultureReligionDemographicsAll 4 sections are thoroughly researched, reviews relevant literature with no gaps in topic coverage For each section, research is obtained that relates as close to the defined community as possible (ie. For a town county data is often more valuable than state or national data)Partially reviews the 4 sections; reviews relevant literature with some gaps in topic coverage; 1 or more sections with limited information Analysis is unclear in some areas Local data not obtained when it is available to the general public1 or more sections are missing Analysis is confusing and incomplete
Subsystems of the Community Physical EnvironmentHealth and Social ServicesEconomy and SafetyTransportationPolitics and GovernmentLocal Public Health EducationRecreationAll 8 sections are thoroughly researched, reviews relevant literature with no gaps in topic coverage For each section, research is obtained that relates as close to the defined community as possible (ie. For a neighborhood city or county data is often more valuable than state or national data)Partially reviews the 8 sections; reviews relevant literature with some gaps in topic coverage; 1 or more sections with limited information Analysis is unclear in some areas Local data not obtained when it is available to the general public1 or more sections are missing Analysis is confusing and incomplete
Interviews 2-3 interviews minimum requirementInterviews of stakeholders preferred   Stakeholder: persons with a vested interest in the community such as long-term residents, business owners and government officialsStakeholders provide different points of view than persons who only work in a community or who just moved inAt least 2 interviews are obtained Information on the participants is included (age, sex, work, length of residence etc. ) Interview information is not combined: it is easy in the final project to see the statements of each person interviewed  At least 1 stakeholder interview includedAt least 2 interviews were obtained, but unable to see the statements of each person interviewed    Information on participants not included No stakeholder interviews included Difficult to understand; wording is inconsistent and confusingUnder 2 interviews included
Analysis Based on the assessment Strengths of the community Challenges of the community Health needs of the communityGroup perceptions included that are analytic and logical Identifies and describes strengths, challenges and/or health needs of the community that are related to information obtained in the community assessmentBriefly identifies and describes strengths, challenges and/or health needs Links to information in the windshield survey are unclear Some major strengths/challenges/needs identified in community assessment are not discussedAnalysis is missing Not linked to information obtained in the community assessment
Uses Scholarly Sources: Assessment data from primary or scholarly/government source; best sources of evidence available General Assignment is readable, makes sense, and the plan is practical and realistic All assignment requirements are included Is written in correct format Slide notes accompany each slide, explaining the presented content. Regardless of style: all resources are required to be listed in APA format  Multiple scholarly sources used for highest level of evidence In-text/on slide citations consistently seen in final work for source data Images and tables improve comprehension of topic No errors in usage, capitalization, punctuation and spelling No errors in APA formatting, in-text or on- screen citations and reference page Slide notes given for all slides except title pagesFew scholarly sources used in-text/on slide citations missing in many cases Few images used Some errors in usage, capitalization, punctuation and spelling but does not interfere with reading/understanding 1-2 errors in APA formatting, in-text or on-screen citations and reference page Many slides missing slide notes, or slide notes are incomplete and only partially address the content presented on the slideDid not use scholarly resources and does not reference most of the sources used in the work Images cover text on slides or are inappropriately used Text is too small or difficult to read APA is not correctly used in format or citations Multiple spelling or grammar errors No slide notes attached
  Total score: _____/60   Comments:
The Community Assessment Practicum Assignment is worth 15% of the total grade in the NUR 425 course