select advantages of the proposition and financial reserves from the strengths quadrant. Elaborate on the advantages of following the recommendations, for example, following professional standards of equal care, decreasing cost by not ordering unnecessary diagnostic tests, and increasing revenue from shorter visit times.

Items you may identify from the weakness quadrant could include processes and systems, and morale commitment and leadership. These items are weaknesses due to the need to train providers on national recommendations and create a system within the EMR to track PAP smears.

You should then choose two items from both the opportunities quadrant and the threats quadrant and include them in your reply post.

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Response 1

 One of the competencies identified in my clinical practice setting presenting a quality/safety issue is the competency of teamwork and collaboration. This is defined as the ability to function effectively within interprofessional teams, fostering open communication, mutual respects, and shared decision making to attain quality patient care (QSEN, 2012). Many of the patients in the clinic are being evaluated for chronic condition requiring laboratory work or imaging prior to the visit. The patient will be seen in January and told to follow up in 6 months. The patient is given laboratory orders to be performed prior to their next visit in June. There has been a clear breakdown in communication between ordering diagnostic test and the communication between the clinic and the patient to perform the required tests for the follow up visit. The result is patients being evaluated for conditions including; diabetes and anemia etc., without the proper laboratory data needed to make clinical and safe decisions for the patient. This break in communication and systematic efficiency results in frustration as a provider, in addition to patient dissatisfaction and safety concerns. Patient are essentially receiving inadequate care due to system and collaboration deficiencies. Communication failures not only fail the patient, but also the multidisciplinary team involved in the care (Hayward, 2021).
The skills needed to improve these deficiencies are achieved through choosing communication styles that diminish risks associated in this area. There needs to be an attitude focused on committing to interprofessional and intraprofessional collaboration (QSEN, 2012). Good interprofessional communication and collaboration requires the recognition of clear roles and responsibilities. Lessons must be learnt from past conflicts to ovoid them reoccurring (Hayward, 2021). The current system must incorporate a clear and detailed follow up communication resource prior to patient visits. Achieving communication with the patient will decrease the current issue and provide more coordinated and efficient care. 

Response 2

 The QSEN identifies quality/safety as one of the major competencies (QSEN, 2012). There are quality and safety issues that can be identified within the organization that I work for. According to the QSEN (2012), safety minimizes the risk of harm to patients and providers through both system effectiveness and individual performance. In a busy level one emergency department, I have seen a lack of diagnostic testing on certain patients, for example, behavioral health patients. This is concerning because up to half of the patients with a mental health complaint have coexisting non-psychiatric medical diseases that could be causing or exacerbating their psychiatric condition (Thrasher et al., 2019). Unfortunately, if patients have a psychiatric history or symptoms such as depression, the patient is undertreated by the attending physician. With a lack of diagnostic testing for individuals with a mental health component, there is a risk of misdiagnosis, leading to poor patient outcomes (Zun, 2016).
One would expect a compromise in the patient’s quality/safety if a misdiagnosis occurred. The best-practice of care is not being completed for the patient, and there is a lack of optimal health care service by the provider and collaborating team. It is important for the provided to provide quality care based on evidence-based decisions and to value the process of risk reduction in health systems (QSEN, 2012).

Part 2: Scientific Investigation in Biology

Name _________________________

Total points = 75  Grade = your score/75

Questions:

1.    The definition of Science includes the phrase “natural world.”  Why is it important to include this term in the definition of Science?  What does the phrase “natural world” mean? 6 points 

       ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.    What kinds of things is the study of Science limited to?  What kinds of things are beyond the limits of scientific study? 6 points

       ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

       ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

IV.       Use of the Scientific Method in Everyday Life

       Although we may not realize it, the Scientific Method is utilized to answer questions that arise in everyday life activities.  Some examples of everyday life activities that incorporate the use of the Scientific Method are given below.  Using the example below, identify the steps of the scientific method that are used to answer the question.

       A person purchases a new plant and places it in a location inside her home.  After several days, she notices that the leaves are yellow and that the plant does not seem to be growing well.  A friend who is a gardener suggests several reasons why the leaves are turning yellow.  The person who bought the plant guesses that the plant is not receiving enough light.  She relocates the plant next to a window with more light.  After two weeks the leaves are dark green.  

       Use the example above to identify each of the steps of the scientific method by completing the following: 18 Points (3 Points each)

1.    Problem (Remember to state as a question):  ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.    Gather Information about the Problem: 

       ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.    Form the Hypothesis:  ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.    Test the Hypothesis:

       ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.    Collect Data: 

       ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.    Form Conclusions:

       ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise

Using the criteria from Forming the Hypothesis in the Scientific Investigation in Biology Handout, evaluate the following hypotheses: 12 Points (3 Points each)

1.    Pollution is harmful to lakes.

       Is this a good hypothesis?  Why or why not?

       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.    A person who is thinking of taking a new job consults an astrologer to determine if this is a wise decision and whether he will be successful.  The astrologer tells the person that the stars are not in a favorable position for taking this job and that he should not do it. 

       Is the astrologer’s prediction a scientific hypothesis?  Why or why not?

       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.    Increased carbon dioxide levels will increase the rate of photosynthesis, as measured by the rate of oxygen production, in Coleus leaves.

       Is this a good hypothesis?  Why or why not?

       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.    A poor diet will affect a person’s health.

       Is this a good hypothesis?  Why or why not?

       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Groups in the Experiment

1.    What is the purpose of the control group? (3 points)

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.    During an experiment that was conducted to test the effect of a new medicine to treat cancer, the temperature in the experimental group of rats was mistakenly set at a higher level than in the controls.  The experiment is no longer valid.  Why?

       (3 points)

       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Identify the Independent (Experimental) Variable, Dependent Variable, Controlled Variables, and Control Group for the following experiments: 12 Points (1 Point each)

For the control group, specify the way that it is set up.  Remember that the control group is one of the two groups of organisms in an experiment, not the thing being tested.

1.    A group of plants is treated with Miracle Grow fertilizer.  A solution of Miracle Grow fertilizer is applied using a watering can.  The plant’s height is measured every 48 hours.

       Independent Variable  ______________________________________________________

       Dependent Variable    ______________________________________________________

       Controlled Variables   ________________________________________________________

       Control Group  ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.    A group of geranium plants is treated with blue light.  The rate of photosynthesis is

       measured.

       Independent Variable  ______________________________________________________

       Dependent Variable    ______________________________________________________

       Controlled Variables   ______________________________________________________

       Control Group           ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.    A group of mice is treated using injections of thyroid hormone.  Their metabolic rate is measured.

       Independent Variable _________________________________________________________

       Dependent Variable   _________________________________________________________

       Controlled Variables  _________________________________________________________

       Control Group          ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 
Observation:  The stem and leaves of the plant are facing in the direction of the sun.

Inference: (3 points) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Define the term conclusion as it is used in an experiment.  Can a hypothesis be proven to be true?  Explain.  6 points

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Define the term theory.  Define the term Law.  What is the difference between a theory and a Law? 6 points

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Scientific Investigation in Biology Worksheet fall 2021