Research Paper Instructions

This document includes information that applies to both the Research Paper – First Draft and the Research Paper – Final Draft.

RLGN 490 culminates with a major research paper that is grounded on scholarly virtue and demonstrates the systematic research of a topic. As such, the paper must demonstrate the characteristics of scholarly excellence (diligence, honesty, integrity, etc.) and systematically present the topic. You will collaborate with your instructor regarding an appropriate paper topic. Two important reminders about this research paper must be kept in mind. First, research is the objective, systematic search for suitable authoritative information about a precisely specified topic. Second, the findings of this research are presented as a paper that brings the information together and answers the research question in a clear, persuasive, and systematic manner.

The final draft of your research paper must meet all the first draft research paper criteria and incorporate the instructor’s feedback provided on the first draft. You will have module/week 6 to review your graded first draft and incorporate the insturctor’s feedback into the final draft.

Culmination of the Research

Your research paper will be considered for publication in an online journal that has been created especially for RLGN 490 and is housed in the Digital Commons. The journal name is Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship. You have the opportunity to not only produce a quality research paper, but also to contribute to the world of scholarship. The research paper will also serve as a writing sample for those students who wish to pursue graduate work.

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General Suggestions for Writing a Formal Research Paper

  1. Never specifically address the reader in academic papers. Avoid second person pronouns such as “you” or “your” in academic writing as this is much too informal and casual.
  2. Avoid the use of first person as well. Academic papers lose much of their merit when first person pronouns such as “I,” “me,” and “my” appear in the text.
  3. Avoid the use of contractions such as “can’t,” “don’t,” “doesn’t,” and so on. At this level, you should be striving to produce formal documents that have a poised, professional tone.
  4. Consult and cite authoritative, academic sources. This adds great value and merit to the paper.
  5. Avoid conversational or colloquial jargon. Slang, idioms, figures of speech, and a casual/relaxed tone are not acceptable for academic papers.
  6. Write as though the reader does not have a thorough background in the subject matter. This will help you provide a more comprehensive presentation (of the context and background).
  7. Make sure all sentences are clear, strong, and well-thought-out. A weak sentence in the middle of a paragraph weakens the entire paragraph.
  8. Craft clean, concise topical paragraphs. Paragraph breaks not only help you better organize your content, but they can also give the reader a visual delineation of your thought processes, making your paper easier to follow logically.
  9. Include a precise thesis statement (hypothesis or claim) in your work. The thesis statement is a sentence or two that appears early in your paper and communicates the main point or focus of your work.
  10. Avoid using rhetorical questions in academic papers as they do not directly contribute to the content of your paper. Keep to clear, direct statements.

A Final Reminder

Academic honesty is required. Do not, in any way, use any paper or research developed by another student, past or present. Computer files may not be shared or copied for other students. If in doubt, ask your instructor. Academic dishonesty or plagiarism will result in an “F” for the paper and possibly for the course. Plagiarism (in papers, projects, or any assignment) includes the following:

Omitting quotation marks or other conventional markings around material quoted from any printed (or electronic) source.

  • Paraphrasing a specific passage from a specific source without properly referencing the source.
  • Replicating another student’s work or parts thereof and submitting it as original.
  • Replicating your own previously submitted work.

For more information on these topics, consult the Student Expectations page.

Submit your Research Paper – First Draft by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 5.

Submit your Research Paper – Final Draft by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 7.

Research Paper Instructions

This document includes information that applies to both the Research Paper – First Draft and the Research Paper – Final Draft.

RLGN 490 culminates with a major research paper that is grounded on scholarly virtue and demonstrates the systematic research of a topic. As such, the paper must demonstrate the characteristics of scholarly excellence (diligence, honesty, integrity, etc.) and systematically present the topic. You will collaborate with your instructor regarding an appropriate paper topic. Two important reminders about this research paper must be kept in mind. First, research is the objective, systematic search for suitable authoritative information about a precisely specified topic. Second, the findings of this research are presented as a paper that brings the information together and answers the research question in a clear, persuasive, and systematic manner.

Instructions

You will write a research paper that is 3,000–3,750 words on an approved topic and in collaboration with your instructor. In addition to thoroughly analyzing the topic, the paper must be typed in Times New Roman 12-point font, be double spaced with 1-inch margins, and include a title page, footnotes, and a bibliography per current Turabian format. You must consult and interact with at least 10 published scholarly sources (published by reputable academic publishers as opposed to private essays, blogs, student papers, wikis, etc.). Reference works such as the Holy Bible (the MT and GNT as much as is possible), Hebrew and Greek dictionaries/lexicons, theological dictionaries, and concordances must be utilized. These reference works are essential components of biblical and theological research and must be included in the bibliography and footnoted when you cite from them. See the current edition of the Turabian manual regarding citing the Holy Bible. The style of the Research Paper must follow current Turabian format. The minimum of 3,000 words refers to the main body of the paper only (it does not include the title page, contents/outline, bibliography, or appendices). While you may include an outline page, it is not required.

Criteria for Evaluation

The research paper will be evaluated according to—but not limited to—the following criteria:

  1. Structure/Organization: The paper is well-organized, using subheadings to indicate major topics. The paper is built on coherent topical paragraphs that lead to the overall cohesiveness of the paper, and culminates with a strong/persuasive conclusion. The paper is formatted according to current Turabian format.
  2. Content: The body of the paper is within the criteria of 3,000–3,750 words. The length does not include the title page, contents/outline, bibliography, or appendices. The paper contains an appropriately placed, precise thesis statement; demonstrates serious and critical interaction with at least 10 scholarly, research-oriented sources; clearly focuses on the topic; and demonstrates an acute understanding of the topic. The paper coherently presents the topic; demonstrates an awareness of the assumed reader/audience; and maintains a consistent argument/line of reasoning that is clearly based on exegetical analysis of key biblical texts. Each premise is substantially supported by key biblical texts, primary sources, secondary sources, and essential reference works.
  3. Grammar/Mechanics: The paper contains no major or minor grammatical errors. It shows an awareness of subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and all other nuances of good English grammar. Spelling, punctuation, and grammar are correct and consistent. Sentences are coherent, complete, fluent, unified, and varied. The paper conforms to current Turabian format in all matters related to formatting, use of subheadings, footnote citations, and bibliography entries.

The Right Methodology

Depending on the topic you select (from the approved topics) in collaboration with your instructor, your research paper may take one of the following approaches:

  1. Biblical Exegesis and Interpretation: In this case, your paper will consist of an exegetical analysis of a particular biblical text. The biblical text must be manageable so as to be adequately treated within the specified word count. For instance, you may want to discover the meaning of Paul’s use of theopneustos in 2 Tim 3:16 relating to the nature of Scripture. You would conduct an exegetical analysis of 2 Tim 3:10–17, focusing on verse 17 and related biblical texts. The Biblical Exegesis and Interpretation approach must follow the 7 steps in the exegetical process and model outline as presented in Chapter 2 of the Vyhmeister and Robertson text. This would be an inductive approach to Bible study (ie. Inductive Bible Study).
  2. Biblical Theology: You may want to approach your topic inductively by exploring its major theological development within the canon of Scripture. For instance, you may trace the development of the concept of divine revelation throughout the Old and New Testaments. Furthermore, you may concentrate on either Old Testament theology or New Testament theology.
  3. Historical Theology: You may want to explore given topic such as the Reformer’s view of Scripture within a specified historical context. In this case, you would set the limits of your inquiry so as to be manageable within the confine of the paper. You would also delimit your objects of inquiry. For instance, you may want to examine (compare and contrast) the views Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin held about Scripture.

In collaboration with your instructor, you will determine the best approach and methodology for your topic. Whether you have a topic in mind or not, your instructor will discuss potential biblical-theological topics with you and guide you through the process of choosing a topic.

Culmination of the Research

Your research paper will be considered for publication in an online journal that has been created especially for RLGN 490 and is housed in the Digital Commons. The journal name is Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship. You have the opportunity to not only produce a quality research paper for this course, but also to contribute to the world of scholarship. The course instructor will inform you whether or not your paper is being considered for publication in Diligence. The well researched and well written research paper will also serve as a writing sample for those students who wish to pursue graduate work.

General Suggestions for Writing a Formal Research Paper

  1. Never specifically address the reader in academic papers. Avoid second person pronouns such as “you” or “your” in academic writing as this is much too informal and casual.
  2. Avoid the use of first person as well. Academic papers lose much of their merit when first person pronouns such as “I,” “me,” and “my” appear in the text.
  3. Avoid the use of contractions such as “can’t,” “don’t,” “doesn’t,” and so on. At this level, you should be striving to produce formal documents that have a poised, professional tone.
  4. Consult and cite authoritative, academic sources. This adds great value and merit to the paper.
  5. Avoid conversational or colloquial jargon. Slang, idioms, figures of speech, and a casual/relaxed tone are not acceptable for academic papers.
  6. Write as though the reader does not have a thorough background in the subject matter. This will help you provide a more comprehensive presentation (of the context and background).
  7. Make sure all sentences are clear, strong, and well-thought-out. A weak sentence in the middle of a paragraph weakens the entire paragraph.
  8. Craft clean, concise topical paragraphs. Paragraph breaks not only help you better organize your content, but they can also give the reader a visual delineation of your thought processes, making your paper easier to follow logically.
  9. Include a precise thesis statement (hypothesis or claim) in your work. The thesis statement is a sentence or two that appears early in your paper and communicates the main point or focus of your work.
  10. Avoid using rhetorical questions in academic papers as they do not directly contribute to the content of your paper. Keep to clear, direct statements.

A Final Reminder

Academic honesty is required. Do not, in any way, use any paper or research developed by another student, past or present. Computer files may not be shared or copied for other students. If in doubt, ask your instructor. Academic dishonesty or plagiarism will result in an “F” for the paper and possibly for the course. Plagiarism (in papers, projects, or any assignment) includes the following:

  • Omitting quotation marks or other conventional markings around material quoted from any printed (or electronic) source.
  • Paraphrasing a specific passage from a specific source without properly referencing the source.
  • Replicating another student’s work or parts thereof and submitting it as original.
  • Replicating your own previously submitted work.

For more information on these topics, consult the Student Expectations page.

Submit your Research Paper – First Draft by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 5.

Submit your Research Paper – Final Draft by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 7.

Research Paper – Proposal Instructions

You will need to start thinking about your research paper topic right away. You will submit your research paper proposal in Module/Week 2. The time and effort you put into your proposal will be well worth it. Once you have taken the 3 basic steps in planning your research (defined the problem, determined the purpose, and designed a methodology), you will be ready to write your proposal. The proposal will serve as a “clear guide for the research process” as well as providing the basis for your paper introduction (Vyhmeister and Robertson 2014, 122).

The proposal must be typed in Times New Roman 12-point font and be double spaced with 1-inch margins. The proposal will consist of 3–4 pages. It must include the following elements:

  1. Give the background of the problem. Detail the scope and extent of the problem.
  2. Clearly state the problem in 1 sentence or with a question.
  3. State the purpose of your research. What are you going to do about the problem?
  4. State your thesis (i.e., hypothesis). Clearly state your tentative solution to the problem.
  5. Detail the significance/importance of this research.
  6. Define potentially unfamiliar terms, such as technical, denominational, or theological terms.
  7. State the limitations of this study (e.g., time limitations, language limitations, limited library resources).
  8. Declare the delimitations of this study by setting precise parameters.
  9. Clarify your methodology by delineating the precise steps you plan to take or process you will follow in order to achieve your stated purpose.
  10. Provide a tentative outline of the major points you plan to cover.
  11. Include a working bibliography consisting of sources you have consulted up to this point. Your complete bibliography is due in Module/Week 3.

Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 2.

RLGN 490 Research Paper Final Draft Grading Rubric

CriteriaLevels of Achievement
Content 70%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot present
Development of Thesis50 to 56 points In addition to the advanced level of achievement prescribed for the first draft, the final draft incorporates all revisions based on instructor feedback given for the first draft.39 to 49 points In addition to the proficient level of achievement prescribed for the first draft, the final draft incorporates most but not all revisions based on feedback given for the first draft.1 to 38 points In addition to the developing level of achievement prescribed for the first draft, the final draft incorporates a few revisions based on feedback given for the first draft.0 points Content is not present.
Structure 30%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot present
Grammar 8 points • Contains no major or minor grammatical errors. • Shows an awareness of subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and all other nuances of good English grammar. • Sentences are coherent, complete, fluent, unified, and varied.  6 to 7 points • Contains a few minor grammatical errors. • In most cases, shows an awareness of subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and all other nuances of good English grammar. • Most sentences are coherent, complete, fluent, unified, and varied.1 to 5 points • Contains several major and minor grammatical errors. • In several cases, lacks an awareness of subject-verb agreement, tense agreement, and other nuances of good English grammar. • Several sentences lack coherency and fluency.0 points Content not present.
Spelling 8 points Spelling is correct and consistent.  6 to 7 points Contains a couple spelling errors.1 to 5 points Contains several spelling errors.0 points Content not present.
Formatting8 points Completely conforms to the Turabian Style Guide. No formatting errors.6 to 7 points Contains a few Turabian-related formatting errors.1 to 5 points Contains several Turabian-related formatting errors.0 points Content not present.

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Human Authorship of Scripture

Introduction

            The debate about the authority of the word of God and that humans authored it is fascinating. The belief that God inspired human authorship is very important for Christians. Those who do not coincide with the truth about Bible authorship also doubt the Christian worldview. Those who do not believe that the Bible is God’s written word have a major concern with Christian truths. The problem’s background is geared towards determining whether humans wrote the Bible through divine inspiration or wrote to voice their culture, personal beliefs, and positions. The realism and authority of the Scripture are determined. If one doubts divine inspiration and Bible authenticity, then s/he doubts the Christian world view. If one does not accept Bible authenticity, yet it is given to people through human authorship, then the Biblical world view is affected. If the Bible is self-attesting, does it solve arguments that all Scriptures are God’s word authored by humans through divine inspiration? It is upon us to believe or overlook that the Bible is the word of God but be ready for consequences. To comprehend that God’s word is sacred and divine; Christians should be keen on Biblical exegesis and its interpretation. Since the God is truthful, the Scripture is true, inerrant, infallible, absolute, and final. Through the Holy Spirit, this paper shows how God inspired and illuminated human authors to write the Scripture as a revelation of His word.

The Bible’s Claim Regarding the Process of Divine Inspiration (2 Thess 2:15, 2 Tim 3:16, 2 Pet 1:19-21,)

            The Holy Scripture contains the entire structure of Christian truth. Through divine inspiration, God breathed out words to human authors. Before any writing, the authors had to let God act through them. They were obliged to use their knowledge and creativity, write His voice, make truthful statements, and ensure each Scripture coincided with God’s intention.

Apostle Paul states, “So then, brothers, stand firm and hold to the traditions that you were taught by us, either by our spoken word or by our letter.” 2 Thessalonians 2:15, ESV: God communicated his mind and will to the authors. Some scholars and scientists quarrel about the divine origin of the word of God. However, theologians credit and explain how the Bible is authentic based on God’s authority over humans. The Bible defends itself with convincing credentials that it is a result of divine inspiration. Human authors used true wisdom from God to write the Scriptures. [1]All the writing of men is valued in the book of books. God’s word embodies human nature because He is also the creator.

            The Holy Spirit illuminated authors to comprehend and write God’s word. Human agents were used to bringing forth the sacred word because it would be easier communicating with people through others or their actions.The Holy Spirit illuminated the authors’ minds so that they could pronounce words breathed in them. Even with the illumination, the authors did not cease from praying to hear, receive, and inwardly digest the word given to them by God.[2] Besides prophets and priests, God did not choose his authors irrespective of their literacy levels. Through the Holy Spirit’s inspiration and illumination, Kings, servants, and fishermen also wrote the sacred word to reveal God’s intent. Moreover, the authors received inspiration from their challenges, sorrow, circumstances, and joys that Christians could relate to.[3] As a result, the Scriptures looked beautiful and unified because they contained God’s intent and message that we could understand.

           Divine revelation to humans is not outrightly explained because there lacks no clear evidence about the process of inspiration. Christians ask how God communicated his message to human authors. There might be reasons that led the writers to write the Scriptures. Despite the many concerns about the divine inspiration, the Scripture originates with the almighty. 2 Timothy 3:16, NLT: “All Scripture is inspired by God and is useful to teach us what is true to make us realize what is wrong in our lives. It corrects us when we are wrong and teaches us to do what is right.” His direct control brought about the Scriptures. God used human authors to uncover certain truths and pearls of wisdom about him via Scriptures. Before the Scriptures, God’s wisdom was hidden. Apostle Paul cites that there is only one wise God. The Holy Spirit was used to discern and illuminate the best possible manifestation for human authors to write Gods intent. Human authors were used unravel gods wisdom by writing things that were not existing but they would happen in the future. The wisdom of God was at work in writers when composing texts had the revelation of God’s Word.[4] The authors received the anointing and the spirit of God to declare God’s truth. God’s spirit directed the Bible author’s thoughts and words so that they would discourse God’s truth. Human authors served God’s purpose by imparting his words. Human wisdom did not assist in authoring the Bible; instead, the Holy Spirit did. The authors reckoned that from God’s mouth, they receive knowledge and understanding. Even with god inspiration, human authors were allowed to apply artistry and literary techniques. They had to accept being used as mediums for progressive revelationof the sacred Word.

            God chose and prepared the Scripture authors to write what He wanted. As God’s chosen vessels, all believed in him. All prophets were chosen as God’s instrument to spread the word of God through Scriptures. 2 Peter 1:19-21 NIV “We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as the Holy Spirit carried them along. “Chosen writers had a special ability to converse the truth of God through Scriptures. [5] The doctrine of inspiration and illumination in every sense proves that humans stimulated no prophecy of the Scripture. 2 Peter 1:20-21 shows that god revelation made humans speak from God through Scriptures. The Holy Spirit superintended the authorship to prevent personal influence and errors. 2 Timothy 3:16 backs the statement that the Bible is inspired and organic truth. Since the Holy Spirit superintended word choice and writing style, the author’s intentions, experiences, and personalities aligned with God’s intent. Peter divulges Paul’s letters discerning the organic inspiration of the Bible. He coins that God’s wisdom amplified the author’s gifts to express what God wanted.  Human authors accept that the Holy Spirit is the divine source of the Bible (Acts 4:25, John 14:16-17, Psalms 2). The Spirit of truth illuminated the authors to write in-depth truths. 1 Corinthians 2:14, ESV presents the Holy Spirit that superintended authorship. The Holy Spirit, a “helper,” authoritatively protected the Scripture from human sinfulness and fallibility.[6] The doctrine of organic inspiration meant that the authors wrote what God breathed out, but the language had to be interpreted and understood without contradicting the exact message.

            The person who delivered God’s message was less important than the words given to them to write. In some instances, the authors did not understand the meaning of the words when writing. Some of the prophecies in the Scriptures were not understandable to the writers. The Holy Spirit controlled writers without their knowledge so that the final product would feature the truth of God. Being mortals, human authors were carried away by the Holy Spirit to execute the supernatural process. The Holy Spirit came upon authors to inspire them. As a result, they delivered God’s truths through the Scriptures’. The ability to write Scriptures was not from one’s own interpretation. The authors spoke from God. Human ideas, interpretation, and imagination have no place in the sacred Scriptures.[7] Human authors did not have a decision to include or omit if God did not agree to it. The writers had to accept to be moved by the load. The writer was to portray passivity when the Holy Spirit was in session. It made them write God’s authoritative word. On the contrary, false prophets wrote their own message without divine intervention.

Traditional Authorship of the Bible

            The Bible was a long time coming, written by approximately 35 to 40 authors. However, all the words were breathed out by God. Each author used his/her writing style and personality, but God superintended their work. Moses is considered the author of the first five books of the Old Testament.[8] Even if humans wrote the Holy book, it does not refute itself. The Scriptures are not erroneous. Despite the different writing styles and angles, all authors glorify and represent one true God.[9] Only a few Biblical books have mentioned their authors. Many people coin that if you have to know who wrote a particular book, you should know him/her from the book’s title. Different theologians have been apprehensive about Bible authorship, especially Johannine authorship of Revelation and Pauline authorship of Hebrews. Christians agreed to traditional utterances because writing, transcribing, and compiling the Bible was not easy. Jesus also quotes Scriptures from previous prophets to prove that the Bible is God’s word, which should not be changed or manipulated.

Historical Criticism of the Bible

           Scripture authorship has received different forms of criticism. They include philological criticism, textual criticism, literary criticism, form criticism, and traditional criticism. However, criticism and interpretation of the Old Testament and the New Testament is based on the current environment. Critics try to restructure the Biblical texts through history, exegesis, and hermeneutics. All forms of criticism work simultaneously to determine the original text, style, composition, oral traditions, and preliterary forms used in the Scripture’s authorship. Historical criticism is geared towards discerning whether God’s word is a literary object or sacred text, resulting from divine inspiration.[10] Historical criticism is beneficial because it helps Christians accept that the Bible is the word of God. When critics read Scripture to get to know the origin of the book and who the authors were. Critics get to know what influence or inspired the writers to write the Scriptures. Again, Christian get to know who the authors were responding or communicating with during the authorship period. The reader of the Bible also gets to know who the authors were writing for. Historical criticism is beneficial because Christians get to know the truth based on the disputing theories that contravene god inspiration of the sacred word. The fault with historical criticism is only based on direct divine action, but Scriptures evidence that humans could write their perceptions but not veer from gods’ intent. God indirectly presented circumstances, challenges, joys, and sorrows to bring the best in writers.

Divine and Human Authorship

           God’s word cannot be questioned or disputed. Even though humans wrote the Scriptures, God’s Inspiration makes the book inerrant. The “how’s and who’s” behind the Bible authorship were inspired to write the Scriptures in their styles and perspectives. Since God is divine, He is the primary author of the Bible. Human authors are sacred but come as secondary writers. God does not limit the human author’s responsibility and autonomy when writing the Scriptures. Moreover, the Holy Spirit stressed what human authors wrote. Unlike other literatures that have counterarguments citing fiction, biblical literature is factual because god inspired the intelligence of ancient man. The word of god is redemptive history of the past, its existence and truthfulness lived before the authorship. Authors of Bible produced the literary Scripture but the word existed before the writing. God’s inspiration allowed authors to make the best use of their powers and abilities when authoring what the Lord wanted. Even though authors were allowed to use their style of preference, the words are inspired by God.[11] The mechanical view cites that the Scripture might be inspired by God but uttered by the Holy Spirit.

The Role of the Human Author

           The primary role of human writers was to convey God’s word to people. One can draw conclusions and evidence from the authors’ role to back that God is the origin of the word. Human authorship was not mechanical because the authors contributed a lot in the Scriptures. The inspiration was not analogous because each writer was obliged to use a different style and discern different subjects. However, all texts would affirm the same conviction. Some Scriptures were in the form of songs, literary texts, letters, and colloquial grammar. A definite voice was to be used in writing the texts. They were not allowed to write false information. The truth was to be understood by everyone, even for those who lacked literary abilities. It is imperative to note that God did not utter all words in Scriptures for human authors to write. Some of the verses consulted or historical reference sources with author contributions as well. Not only are the Scriptures inspired, but they are also sufficient. The human others did not write as per God’s voice, but they wrote what God intended. Humans were used to speaking God’s word in a language that everyone could understand. The Bible is self-attesting that humans wrote it but inspired and illuminated by the Holy Spirit. The savior also concurred that the Bible is God’s word and teaches us about the doctrine of his nature. Jesus was a mere receiver of the Scripture.[12]

Modern Scholarship View

           The view narrates Scripture authorship from historical superstition to enlightenment. The inner logic of contemporary scholars has evolved, but it does not veer from the truth that God is the Scripture’s primary author. The embroidery element in this view has based no objectivity. Post-Enlightenment intellectual disciplines are examined to ascertain how Biblical texts were written. According to scholars, the remembrance and revising of Jesus inspired the authorship of the gospel books. [13]Social and psychological constituents have been discussed to ascertain how Paul’s letters were written and the cultural world of early Christianity. Since modern scholars do not detach human authorship from god inspiration, texts written were made to align people’s life and purpose to what God wants. Scriptures of Israel focus on the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ inspired the New Testament authorship. According to modern scholars, religious origins and aims also inspired the writing of the Scriptures.

Extent and specification of inspiration

           Plenary inspiration defines the extent of the human authorship of all Scriptures. Limited inspiration is compared with plenary inspiration to find what was left in during the inspiration of deuterocanonical and protocanonicals. The extent or status of inspiration of the Scriptures looks into history, morals, and faith.[14] It is imperative to reckon that all inspirations, either organic or plenary, used a certain word choice. Therefore all inspirations were oral. The word of God was presented in human language, and it was flawless.

            On the contrary conceptual inspiration, theories allege that God enthused sacred writers through concepts. The theory is somewhat simulative because authors were allowed to choose words suitable to elucidate the concepts. However, with conceptual inspiration, the Holy Spirit does not dictate the writing. Above and beyond, the written Scriptures were supposed to be high quality free from errors. [15]The doctrine of inspiration coins that God works is without errors. For supreme truth, the authors had to ensure that the Scriptures were sacred and canonical.[16] A contradiction of the word of God should be attributed by translation but not the faultless verses. It takes Holy Spirit intervention for Christians to translate and understand what the human author was writing. The Bible is not a mere literary book because it uses hyperbolic expressions. 

Conclusion

           True adherents of God should believe that all Scriptures are divinely inspired. The Bible is the sacred and truthful word to his children. None of the Biblical Scriptures were written by a real writer. Inspired humans wrote the Bible. Some of the authors are known, but others remain anonymous. Only Hebrews, the four gospels, Torah, protocanonicals, epistles, psalms, and revelation, have a definite author. Modern scholars often dispute the traditional authorship of the Bible. They believe that the Bible is a result of skeptics and liberalism. However, evangelicals believe that God breathed out the word in humans. Some views have always said that oral traditions influenced the authorship of Scriptures.

            Despite the many views about who authored the Bible, the underlying conclusion is that divine revelation helped produce the Holy book. God speaks to his children through human instruments. In the end, Scripture is God’s word to us. Debates about the human authorship of the Bible are not that important so long as God directed multiple writers to speak his truth. The spirit came upon specific authors and used them as vessels who would speak God’s message on his behalf. They wrote texts exactly how God directed them to do. Holy Spirit’s presence prevented the influence of human imperfections. However, the writers wrote their styles of choice without overlooking their positive perceptions. Full human words are used, but the authors remained loyal to the inspirer. Christians should acknowledge that the Bible is free from errors; it should not be manipulated.

Bibliography

Andrews, Edward D. Mosaic Authorship Controversy: Who Really Wrote the First Five Books of the Bible? Christian Publishing House, 2019.

Barbosa, Rodrigo de Galiza. “The Inspiration and Interpretation of Scripture: What the Early Church Can Teach Us [review] / Graves, Michael.” Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 54.1 (2016): 154-159

Berlin, Adele. “From Scripture to literature.” Interpreting Scriptures in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Overlapping Inquiries (2016): 326.

Bowald, Mark Alan. Rendering the Word in Theological Hermeneutics: Mapping Divine and Human Agency. Routledge, 2016.

Dohrmann, Natalie B. “Jewish books and Roman readers: censorship, authorship, and the rabbinic library.” (2020).

East, Brad. “The Hermeneutics of Theological Interpretation: Holy Scripture, Biblical Scholarship and Historical Criticism.” International Journal of Systematic Theology 19, no. 1 (2017): 30-52.

Goswell, Gregory. “Authorship and anonymity in the New Testament writings.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 60, no. 4 (2017): 733-749.

Haygood Jr, B. Spencer. “Sleuthing the Bible: Clues that Unlock the Mysteries of the Text.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 63, no. 1 (2020): 178-180.

Manning, David. “What was devotional writing?” In People and piety. Manchester University Press, 2020.

Roloff, Mark A. “The Inerrancy of the Breath of God: An Examination of the Bible’s Claim to Inerrancy.” Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship 2, no. 1 (2018): 1.


                [1] Rodrigo de Galiza Barbosa, “The Inspiration and Interpretation of Scripture: What the Early Church Can Teach Us [review] / Graves, Michael.” Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 54.1 (2016): 154-159

            [2] David. Manning, “What was devotional writing?” In People and piety. Manchester University Press, 2020.

            [3] B. Spencer Haygood Jr, “Sleuthing the Bible: Clues that Unlock the Mysteries of the Text.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 63, no. 1 (2020): 178-180.

                [4] Rodrigo de Galiza Barbosa,. “The Inspiration and Interpretation of Scripture: What the Early Church Can Teach Us [review] / Graves, Michael.” Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 54.1 (2016): 154-159

                [5] Spencer Haygood Jr, B. “Sleuthing the Bible: Clues that Unlock the Mysteries of the Text.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 63, no. 1 (2020): 178-180.

            [6] Adele Berlin, “From Scripture to literature.” Interpreting Scriptures in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Overlapping Inquiries (2016): 326.

                [7] Mark A Roloff, “The Inerrancy of the Breath of God: An Examination of the Bible’s Claim to Inerrancy.” Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship 2, no. 1 (2018): 1.

            [8] Edward Andrews, Mosaic Authorship Controversy: Who Really Wrote the First Five Books of the Bible? Christian Publishing House, 2019.

                [9] Natalie Dohrmann, “Jewish books and Roman readers: censorship, authorship, and the rabbinic library.” (2020).

            [10] Adele Berlin, “From Scripture to literature.” Interpreting Scriptures in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Overlapping Inquiries (2016): 326.

                [11] Mark Alan Bowald, Rendering the Word in Theological Hermeneutics: Mapping Divine and Human Agency. Routledge, 2016.

                [12] Gregory Goswell, “Authorship and anonymity in the New Testament writings.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 60, no. 4 (2017): 733-749.

                [13] Brad East, “The Hermeneutics of Theological Interpretation: Holy Scripture, Biblical Scholarship and Historical Criticism.” International Journal of Systematic Theology 19, no. 1 (2017): 30-52.

            [14] Rodrigo de Galiza Barbosa, “The Inspiration and Interpretation of Scripture: What the Early Church Can Teach Us [review] / Graves, Michael.” Andrews University Seminary Studies (AUSS) 54.1 (2016): 154-159

            [15] Ibid, 53.

                [16] David Manning, “What was devotional writing?” In People and piety. Manchester University Press, 2020.