.Three Basic Issues is development continuous or discontinuous? is there one course of development for all children or many courses of development? nature or nurture? Resilient Children signs of resilient (ability to adapt effectively) children: person characteristics, a warm parental relationship, social support outside the immediate family, and community resources and opportunities Modeling also known as observational learning or imitation; part of social learning theory by Bandura ex. a baby claps her hands after her mother does; a teenager dresses like her friends Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Stages Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs.), Pre-operational (2-7 yrs.), Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs.), Formal Operational (11 yrs. +) Equilibrium a balance Piaget thought children achieved between internal structures and information they encounter in their everyday worlds Information Processing a perspective where the human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows ex. information flow chart

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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns Vgotsky’s Socioculture Theory focuses on how culture (values, beliefs, customs and skills) is transmitted to the next generation – believes social interaction is vital for cognitive development Ecological Systems Theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment – Meso, Exo, and Macro (see pictures in notes) Dynamic Systems says that the child’s mind, body, physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills – this system is constantly in motion Down Syndrome results from problems with the 21st chromosome (sometimes called trisomy 21) – the most common chromosomal disorder – consequences include: mental retardation, memory and speech problems, limited vocabulary, and slow motor development; also have distinct physical features (short, stocky and a flattened face with almond shaped eyes) – at higher risk if the mom is older Sex Chromosome Abnormalities problems with the X or Y chromosomes such as XYY syndrome, XXX syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Turner syndrome Family Influences on Development direct: two-person relationships indirect: third parties (co-parenting) Schools Influences on Development children spend an average of 14,000 hours in school by high school graduation – parent-school contact supports development at all ages ex. children with high involved parents achieve especially well Range of Reaction each person’s unique, genetically determined response to the environment ex. intellectual ranges Canalization the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes – a behavior that is strongly canalized develops similarly in a wide range of environments