low birth weight infant
infants the weigh less than 5.5lbs very low is less than 3.5 and extremely low is less
than 2
small for date baby
whose birth weight is below normal then the length of the pregnancy is considered
preterm baby
A baby that is born three weeks before considered full term
full term baby
at least 38 weeks
Postpartum period
the period after childbirth or delivery that lasts for about 6 weeks or until the mother’s
body is adjusted to pre pregnant state
baby blues vs. Post partum depression
baby blues: 2-3 days after birth mothers feel depressed, anxious or upset.

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Post partum depression: involves major depressive episode that typically occurs 4
weeks after delivery
involution
The uterus going back to pre pregnancy size.
What aids involution?
nursing, exercise, relaxation
What assists bonding
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Kangaroo: Skin to skin contact way of holding a child it coordinates breathing and heart
rate
holding, talking to, nursing ect.
Psychoanaytic
describe development as primary unconscious and heavily colored by emotion
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
We can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured
development in observational behavior that can be learned thought experience with the
environment
Ecological Theories
Behavior is influenced by biology
Cognitive Theories
Emphasizes conscious thought
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theories
personality has 3 parts: id (totally unconscious views of reality) ego (executive branch),
superego (moral)
as children grow up their focus of pleasure goes through 5 stages
Erikson’s Psychoanalytic Theories
We develop through eight stages named as turning points that increase vulnerability
and enhance potential
Pavlov Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
classic conditioning: a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response
originally produced by another stimulus.
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Skinner Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
operant conditioning: the consequences of a behavior produces changes in the
probability of the behaviors occurrence. Behavior and reward vs behavior and
punishment
Bandura Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
development is learned and is influenced strongly by environmental interactions.
Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory
the development reflects the influences of several environmental systems
Piaget Cognitive Theory
children actively construct their understandings of the world and go through four stages
of development
Vygotsky Cognitive Theory
a child’s development is inseparable from social and cultural activities. Social interaction
guides cognitive development
Information Processing Theory
individuals manipulate information, monitor is, and strategize about it
Culture
encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a specific group of
people that are passed from generation to genertation
context
setting in which development occurs
domain
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specific aspects of growth and change. Major domains of development include socialemotional, physical, language and cognitive.
ethnicity
rooted in cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, or language
continuity
gradual changes
discontinuity
distinct stages
nature position
our DNA explains why we act the way we act
nurture position
our environment shapes who we are
Steps on the scientific method
conceptualize the problem, collect data, analyze the data, reach conclusions, revise
hypothesis
a specific testable assumption or prediction
descriptive research
observes and records behavior
correlational research
describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events of
characterization
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experimental research
a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors is believed to influence the
behavior being studied
time span research
2 types:
Cross sectional: individuals of different ages are compared at one time
Longitudinal: the same individuals are studied over a period of time
Definition: naturalistic observation
observing behavior in the real-world
Definition: lab observation
a controlled setting with many complex factors removes “real world”
Advantages/ Disadvantages of naturalistic observation
Advantages: people act noramally
Disadvantages: can’t control variables
advantages/ disadvantages of lab obervation
Advantages: Can control variables
Disadvantages: people act unnatural because they know they’re being watched
Definition surveys and interviews
obtains information through questions
advantages and disadvantages of surveys and interviews
A: quickest way to info
D: people write socially acceptable answers
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definition: case studies
an in-depth look at a single individual
advantages and disadvantages of case studies
A: Deeper understanding of an individual
D: can’t compare to others
Definition: Standardized testing
uniform procedures for administration and scoring
advantages and disadvantages standardized testing
A: See differences easily
D: behavior isn’t consistent, can’t tell difference between personality and intelligence
definition: psychophysical
using hormone levels, mri, and heart rate to look at development
advantages and disadvantages of psychophysical
A: can see how physically our bodies react
D: everyone’s body is different
What is natural selection?
the evolutionary process by which those individual species best adapted are the ones
who survive
what is evolutionary psychology?
emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and “survival of the fittest” on
shaping behavior
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